BAIF Development Research Foundation
ETHNOVETERINARY MEDICINE: ALTERNATIVES FOR LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT
PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE HELD IN PUNE, INDIA, 4-6 NOVEMBER 1997
VOLUME 2: ABSTRACTS
Key words and phrases:animal health, community based animal health care, environment, ethnoveterinary medicine, indigenous knowledge, indigenous systems, participation, veterinary
and Constance M. McCorkle
with the assistance of
Published 1999 by BAIF Development Research Foundation, Pune, India 1999
BAIF Development Research Foundation
BAIF Bhavan, Dr. Manibhai Desai Nagar
Warje Malewadi (Bombay - Bangalore bypass highway)
Pune 411 029, India
Phone +91-212-365 494, fax: +91-212-366 788
BAIF is a non-political, secular non-governmental organisation involved in livestock development. BAIF's mission is to create opportunities of gainful self-employment for rural families, especially disadvantaged sections, ensuring sustainable livelihood, enriched environment, improved quality of life and good human health. This will be achieved through development research, effective use of local resources, extension of appropriate technologies and upgradation of skills and capabilities with community participation.
Mathias, E., D.V. Rangnekar, and C.M. McCorkle. 1999. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: Alternatives for Livestock Development. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Pune, India, on November 4-6, 1997. Volume 1: Selected Papers. BAIF Development Research Foundation, Pune, India.
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LIST OF ABSTRACTS
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Many farmers and livestock raisers throughout the developing world rely on traditional healthcare practices to keep their animals healthy. These indigenous or local practices, or "ethnoveterinary medicine" (EVM), include the use of medicinal plants, surgical techniques, and management practices to prevent and treat a range of livestock diseases.
Ethnoveterinary medicine provides valuable alternatives to and complements western-style veterinary medicine. This is increasingly evident in the West where herbal medicine and other alternative approaches such as acupuncture and homeopathy are becoming mainstream. EVM is of specific value in developing countries where allopathic veterinary medicines are often beyond the reach of livestock producers. It can play an important role in grassroots development which seeks to empower people by enhancing the use of their own knowledge and resources.
Over the last decade, interest in EVM has been rapidly increasing across the disciplines including veterinarians, agriculturalists, social scientists, representatives of dairy farmers' co-operatives and other actors involved in ethnoveterinary research and development (ER&D). But EVM is still under-used in development work. A major reason is the lack of formal links that would allow cross-fertilisation of experience and learning from others' successes and failures.
To bridge this gap, the International Conference on Ethnoveterinary Medicine: Alternatives for Livestock Development was organised. In particular, the conference seeked:
- To promote EVM in livestock development.
- To explore possibilities of developing systems for improving the accessibility and efficacy of livestock health services.
- To foster the exchange of experiences and knowledge of EVM and contribute to its knowledge base.
- To identify priorities and approaches for research and field work.
Some 200 delegates attended from India and 20 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. They came from both non-government organisations (NGOs) and government organisations (GOs) and included veterinarians, animal scientists, veterinary technicians, healers, pharmacologists, ethnobotanists, economists, anthropologists, and sociologists; they were scientists, clinicians, field practitioners, extensionists, representatives of the private sector, and policy makers. About 17% of the participants were women.
The conference was opened and addressed by Dr. A. Ahmed, Vice Chancellor of the Hamdard University in New Delhi and Dr. M.L. Madan, Deputy General Director of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). During the first two days, more than 60 presentations discussed the following aspects of ethnoveterinary medicine:
- Research and validation in a plenary and five parallel sessions focussing on pharmacological studies, clinical trials, socioeconomic studies, participatory methods, and ethnobotany.
- Application of EVM in a plenary and five parallel sessions dealing with field application, homeopathy and acupuncture, research and education, commercialisation, and camel health.
- Future approaches in a plenary session.
Comprehensive displays of medicinal plants from India prepared by staff of the Indian organisations SRISTI and ANTHRA, posters, and other exhibits vividly illustrated the multitude and variety of ethnoveterinary systems and practices.
On the second evening, traditional healers from all over India discussed their veterinary practices and provided examples of their remedies.
During the last day, participants split into 10 working groups. These discussed the following topics:
- Pharmacology and ethnobotany.
- Validation and clinical trials.
- Field application (methods, extension, etc.).
- Homeopathy and acupuncture.
- Involving and rewarding grassroots innovators.
- Animal disease and management.
- Databanks and information storage.
Each group formulated recommendations and action plans for their topic, or discussed specific projects. The outputs of the working groups were presented and discussed during a concluding plenary session.
As a post-conference activity, a two-day workshop to produce a field manual on camel diseases was held. During this workshop, about 20 people from 10 countries compiled and discussed information on selected camel diseases and their conventional and ethnoveterinary treatments. The outputs of this workshop will be published as a manual for NGOs, extension workers, and veterinarians.Click to return to 'Contents'
The proceedings of the International Conference on Ethnoveterinary Medicine: Alternatives for Livestock Development are published as two volumes. The first volume includes selected papers, a summary of the discussions of traditional healers, the outputs and recommendations of group workshops, a list of ethnoveterinary projects worldwide, and resources on ethnoveterinary medicine.
This second volume contains abstracts, lists of participants, authors and healers, and an index. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by first author. To provide an overview as comprehensive as possible on who is doing what in ethnoveterinary medicine, we also decided to include those abstracts that were accepted but whose authors could not come to Pune for various reasons. The section Participants and authors at the end of this volume therefore does not give only names and addresses of participants but also of at least the first author of those abstracts whose authors did not participate. The index only covers this and not the first volume but, because it is based on abstracts of all papers, it can help readers to identify which papers in the first volume may be of interest.Click to return to 'Contents'
The conference and production of these proceedings were supported by the following organisations:
- Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, Bangalore, India.
- National Tree Growers Cooperative Federation, Anand, India.
- Ford Foundation, New Delhi, India.
- World Bank, Washington, U.S.A.
- Mehsana Dist. Dairy Cooperative Union, Mehsana, India.
- Indian Herbs, Bangalore, India.
- Dabur Ayurvet, Ghaziabad, India.
- Plantavet, Bad Waldsee, Germany.
- League of Pastoral Peoples, Ober-Ramstadt, Germany.
- CMC Consultants, Washington, U.S.A.
Additional support for participants was received by:
- Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN), Dakar, Senegal.
- Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), Nairobi, Kenya.
- International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, Canada.
- Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
The conference was organised by:
- Dr. D.V. Rangnekar, BAIF, Ahmedabad, India.
- Dr. Constance M. McCorkle, CMC Consulting, Washington, U.S.A.
- Dr. Evelyn Mathias, Independent Consultant, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.
- Dr. A.L. Joshi, BAIF, Pune, India.
The organisers would like to thank the following persons and organisations for their support during the conference preparations and implementation:
- BAIF Team, Pune, India.
- Pratima Krishnan, Om Consultants, Bangalore, India.
- R.R. Mohan, Om Consultants, Bangalore, India.
- Paul Mundy, Independent Consultant, Bergisch Gladbach.
- A.G. Ramdas, BAIF, Ahmedabad, India.
- Ashlesha Rangnekar, Ahmedabad, India.
- Yash Rangnekar, Ahmedabad, India.
The organisers would also like to thank the following organisations for preparing excellent exhibitions of medicinal plants:
- ANTHRA, Pune, India.
- SRISTI, Ahmedabad, India.
In southwestern Nigeria, smallscale livestock production prevails and farmers are amenable to ethnoveterinary care because their system is based on low inputs and outputs. However, while in rural areas ethnoveterinary care is the major approach, peri-urban and urban livestock health management uses both modern veterinary and ethnoveterinary medicine.
In recent times, because of scarce foreign exchange and the high cost of modern veterinary services, the proportion of livestock keepers relying on ethnoveterinary medicine for animal health management has been increasing. However, most indigenous animal healthcare practices are curative rather than preventive. In some cases of serious animal health problems, modern drugs prepared for humans are used for treating animals if the symptoms are similar to the disease for which the drug is used for in humans (e.g., diarrhoea). This report discusses the efficacy, acceptability, affordability, and modifications of ethnoveterinary care of animals and its implications on rural livestock development and public health in the region.
Key words: animal healthcare; ethnoveterinary medicine; efficacy; acceptability; Nigeria.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Sudan has a large camel population which is mostly concentrated in the eastern part of the country. There Shukriya, Lahawiyin, Bawadra, Rashaida, and Rufa pastoralists keep camels for meat, milk, wool, hides, riding and racing, transport, traction, oil milling, and drawing water from wells. Surveys show that herders consider diseases as a major constraint to camel production and herd growth. The most common and feared diseases are trypanosomosis, mange, haboub syndrome (a muscoskeletal stiffness of the neck region), internal parasitism, streptothrichosis, contagious skin necrosis, mastitis, camel pox, and wry-neck syndrome. In calves, diarrhoea was the most common problem. Another problem for herders is the lack of adequate veterinary services. Traditional treatment methods include firing, drenching with plant medicines, and the external application of mud. For certain conditions such as lameness and wry-neck syndrome, firing seems to be more successful than modern chemotherapeutics.
Key words: field research; camels; diseases; ethnoveterinary medicine; pastoralists; Shukriya; Lahawiyin; Bawadra; Rashaida; Rufa; Sudan.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
D. Akabwai, T. Leyland, and E. Stem
This paper describes the special characteristics of marginalised pastoralist areas in sub-Saharan Africa. It outlines some of the constraints and problems associated with the current delivery of clinical and vaccination services by government veterinary departments.
The perceptions of livestock herders are examined in terms of their needs, their existing veterinary knowledge, and the current animal health delivery systems. Examples are taken from project work with pastoralist communities in Turkana district of Kenya, the Afar region of Ethiopia, Southern Sudan, the Northwest province of Cameroon, the Salamat region of Chad, and Karamoja district of Uganda.
The paper describes an approach for developing a sustainable animal health delivery system which can incorporate local perceptions and knowledge, local organisational structures, and national or local government. The typical product of this approach is a "privatised pastoral veterinary practice". Advances in the development of the methodology are based on actual project work carried out in marginalised pastoralist areas. The paper discusses alternative approaches and factors which have guided the development. The phases of implementation are described. Specific attention is placed on how to bring about long term incorporation of ethnoveterinary knowledge into the animal health delivery systems. The paper highlights some of the common problems encountered with the approach and suggests issues which need to be addressed in order to ensure privatised pastoral veterinary practices are both attainable and sustainable.
Key words: traditional veterinary knowledge; pastoralists; animal health delivery system; East Africa.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Traditional veterinary practices have been known in Asia for thousands of years. Ancient centres of ethnoveterinary medicine have been in India, Graeco-Arabic countries, and China. Some major traditional veterinary medical systems and practices of global importance have been influenced by the Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani-Tibb systems, Chinese barefoot practitioners, acupuncture, and herbal folklore claims.
Research on medicinal plants is an important facet of biomedical research. A considerable amount of literature on veterinary herbal drug research has been generated: basic research, pharmacological studies, and clinical trials have been conducted to systematise and validate ethnoveterinary practices and folklore claims of herbal drugs with the goal to use them in animal treatment and production. The current state in Asian countries needs to be surveyed. Many of the ethnoveterinary practices are known to be used in several Asian countries, especially in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Cambodia, Laos, and the Philippines. The paper provides an overview of the past, present, and future of ER&D in South Asia.
Key words: ethnoveterinary research and development; Asia.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Since May 1996 ANTHRA has been involved in a detailed and extensive research project on traditional veterinary and animal management practices. This has evolved from different rural communities in India. The project especially focuses on gender issues and the role of women in livestock-rearing. Its overall goal is to understand and integrate the beneficial aspects of local knowledge systems and expertise into ongoing livestock development programmes. To understand the differences across agro-ecological zones, this research is being undertaken in six distinct regions of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The study has also tried to reflect the differences across communities, caste of livestock raisers, and between species of livestock reared. Some important features of this study are:
Training of local research workers. Field workers from six community-based organisations have been trained to document local knowledge systems pertaining to animal health and ethnoveterinary practices, animal nutrition, animal breeding, local production systems, and markets. Documentation techniques include written records, case histories, participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques, photo-documentation, and herbariums. These field workers have simultaneously been trained on primary veterinary healthcare. Training local research workers has had several advantages:
- The field workers are present in their villages at all times throughout the year. Thus documentation reflects seasonal variations.
- People are more willing to talk to and share information with someone they know and recognise. Language barriers do not exist.
- Involvement of the local person has ensured acceptability of the programme, study, and ANTHRA.
- The process evokes a lot of local interest, initiating debate among local communities about their problems.
- Local-level documentation also represents the beginnings of a community register. This ensures that this knowledge is safeguarded as belonging to the community and prevents future appropriation for ends other than those which would benefit the community.
- A local person is on the spot to address emergency situations in the village, e.g., outbreak of a disease.
While documentation has been precise, it has also been slow, as the field workers are documenting and keeping records for the first time, and time schedules for documentation have been difficult to maintain.
Working with local experts. Through the course of this study, local experts in the field of livestock healthcare have been identified who have enabled the documentation process enormously and have given interesting insights. ANTHRA is in the process of compiling a healers' directory.
Taking knowledge back to the community. At the documentation stage, information from the different areas is being shared with the communities through a variety of audiovisual aids. Village yatras and fairs are being organised to share this information.
This project has also helped younger members of the community to appreciate their environment and the biodiversity they have inherited. This could have an extremely positive impact in strengthening rural livelihoods.
Key words: participatory documentation; indigenous knowledge systems; ethnoveterinary medicine; livestock development; healers' directory; training local research workers; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
The ANTHRA team used questionnaires to interview over 400 farmer families from approximately 54 villages in different parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra on their perceptions of ethnoveterinary medicine. The aim of this research was to study the relevance and relative importance of this system of animal treatment across different regions. Almost all the farmers had used ethnoveterinary treatments at some time for their animals. Specific treatments were identified for at least 46 diseases of livestock including horses and 14 diseases of poultry. Farmers used ethnoveterinary medicine mainly because
- Modern veterinary facilities and veterinary doctors were not available near their villages.
- Veterinary doctors when available charged enormous fees.
- Ethnoveterinary systems resulted in a more permanent use.
- Veterinary medicine when used did not cure conditions and sometimes even introduced new conditions when wrongly used; vaccinations did not prevent disease; and the use of unclean injection needles in rural areas led to problems more severe than the original conditions.
The use of ethnoveterinary medicine differed greatly from region to region and even within regions. A comparison of ethnoveterinary knowledge across different groups showed that there were differences between the knowledge of men and women and between younger and older members of the community. Women of the household preferred traditional remedies and were more knowledgeable than men about household medicines for routine diseases, care of young ones, pregnant and lactating animals, and poultry. Traditional animal rearing communities like the Dhangars had more knowledge on surgical conditions like fractures and snake bite. Younger members of the community had neither the knowledge nor the experience to practice ethnoveterinary medicine effectively.
Although a distinct preference to ethnoveterinary medicine was noted, many families also expressed increasing difficulty in practising this type of medicine. The main difficulties were:
- Plants used for treatment were getting scarce.
- Preparation of medicines was time-consuming.
- Emerging diseases like enterotoxaemia in cattle have no traditional cures.
- Excessive use of chemicals in agriculture like pesticides and fertilisers result in animals not responding to treatment.
- Confusion between superstitious beliefs (bhoot vaidya) and ethnoveterinary treatment.
Most farmers expressed a desire to learn more about the proper use and application of ethnoveterinary practices as these were economically, socially, and culturally more acceptable for marginalised communities. Farmers suggested some methods for the dissemination of this knowledge.
Key words: ethnoveterinary medicine; farmers' perception; treatment; veterinary medicine; knowledge systems; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Since 1984, Operation Lifeline Sudan has provided emergency veterinary relief for livestock owners in Sudan. These programs are run by a wide variety of NGOs and a small UNICEF team and have succeeded in establishing an extensive community-based animal health service system. This system operates throughout most of Southern Sudan in rebel-held areas and to a lesser extent in inaccessible regions of government-controlled lands. The development of these community-based services has been founded on training of community members which affirms their own skills and knowledge of disease and adds to their ability to use modern medicines safely and effectively.
In late 1996, the first studies were undertaken to assess the extent of use of herbal medicines and other traditional practices. These studies revealed that there was a considerable knowledge and use of herbs throughout the areas in which the project operated. Shortly after this work in Southern Sudan was completed, work to develop community-based services in government-controlled areas started. From this short experience the knowledge from research in 1996 is compared with information concerning herbal medicine as practised in Khartoum and Northern Towns for both humans and animals. Specific examples are taken from field research in the area of Southern Darfur surrounding the town of Nyala in Western Sudan. In this area Arab tribes are particularly skilled in the use of complex herbal remedies which are often purchased in preference to modern medicines that are available in local pharmacies. Conclusions are drawn in the light of the author's training in herbal medicine and work with alternative practices in the UK. From the author's experience, non-conventional veterinary medical practices can in conjunction with nutritional, husbandry, and environmental improvements provide high quality health cover for domesticated animals. For this reason it is important for livestock owners in such places as Sudan that traditional health practices are understood and incorporated into new health systems. This will be of benefit not only to resource-poor pastoral people but also to those involved in the health sector of richer nations who are looking for new ideas and medicines to improve health services in their own countries.
Key words: pastoralists; ethnoveterinary medicine; herbal remedies; animal health services; Sudan.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
The efficacy of two indigenous acaricides, Euphorbia cameroonica (kerenahi) and Psorospermum guianensis (sawoiki) on female Boophilus decoloratus ticks was evaluated in the laboratory. Kerenahi sap was used pure, mixed with water, and at 4% and 8% concentrations with palm oil. Sawoiki sediment was used at 2%, 4%, and 6% concentrations in palm oil. Ticks were immersed in the plant preparations for three minutes. It was found that palm oil killed ticks; 59% death rate on day 6 compared to 50% death rate at day 15 for the control (p<1%). Sawoiki 6% and kerenahi in a concentration of 4% and 8% in oil killed as many ticks as Tigal, a commercial acaricide. The lethal effect of kerenahi was found to be quicker than that of sawoiki: 97% of ticks died by day 7 for kerenahi 8% while the same percentage was recorded at day 19 for the highest concentration of sawoiki. Palm oil and kerenahi prevented the laying of eggs. Sawoiki and Tigal reduced the egg-laying period and rate while all acaricides prevented the hatching of eggs. The results indicate that the traditional acaricides tested were efficient in killing ticks and preventing the ticks' normal reproduction.
Key words: laboratory research; medicinal plants; Euphorbia cameroonica; kerenahi; Psorospermum guianensis; sawoiki; Boophilus decoloratus; Tigal; ticks; Cameroon.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Andréine Bel and Bernard Bel
This paper addresses the issue of social, religious, and political systems of power underlying repressive or supportive action towards traditional health systems. The argument is substantiated by two case studies which the authors are currently working on. The first study deals with the traditional amchi medical system in Ladakh and its position pertaining to Tibetan medicine practised in Tibet and in Indian refugee settlements. The second project is a documentation of the practice of traditional midwives in rural India.
At the individual level, social prejudice is accountable for misleading concepts about the efficiency of various healing techniques. Following market trends, patients and naturopaths tend to overlook or discard simple remedies such as water, clay, or the valuable resources of physiotherapy.
At the policy level, the authors refer to the establishment of scientific-medical authority in 16th century Europe, which sent to oblivion many popular health practices. In the early 20th century the allopathic system consolidated its position as the unique and universal medical science. The authors quote recent work questioning the relevance of experimental procedures on which this claim is based. Comparing faith-healer Mesmer with prescribers of aspirin, they demonstrate that "all doctors are quacks..."
Returning to India, they comment on similar attempts of high-brow traditional medical systems to present a 'rational' figure even at the cost of becoming pledged to cosmopolitan medicine. This leads to a broader discussion of economical and political vested interests which may undermine research in ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology.
A distinction is made between the holistic conceptions of health advocated by the WHO, alternative medicines, 'New Age' quacks and the authors' long-term exposure to the seitai approach (of Japanese origin) which is based on accurate observation of natural healing processes. The authors clarify seitai's advocacy of 'breaking free' with therapy, disclosing personal experience in situations of acute disease and child delivery. This takes them to the concept of 'hidden knowledge', thereby meaning domains of expertise that are never elicited because they are restricted to specific communities whose voices do not count. This is the case of the child delivery assistance given by traditional midwives in rural India. Social and gender prejudice will drive this knowledge into oblivion as it is also overlooked in traditional health systems.
The authors conclude by proclaiming the urge of a multidisciplinary scientific approach in which emphasis is put on personal experience and commitment: "the scientist's mind should also be there, on the dissection table...". They hope that their presentation will prompt discussions addressing epistemological and technical aspects of research on the healing of humans and animals.
Key words: traditional human medical systems; traditional animal health systems; midwives; seitai; allopathic medicine; Europe; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
V.P. Belsare, S.K. Raval, and P.R. Patel
Since the domestication of animals, the life of the people in Bharat, India, has been inextricably linked with their livestock and they have developed much knowledge in animal husbandry. In recent years, emphasis has shifted towards modern science in the maintenance and development of livestock. However, many technologies generated centuries ago are still in use and some of these are known to be economic and sustainable.
Present-day technology generation and transfer should build on such indigenous knowledge. For this, it is necessary to identify scientifically promising technologies and practices that can be integrated with scientific knowledge for efficient and economic management of livestock.
This paper discusses:
- Documentation of traditional animal husbandry practices for different species.
- Identification of the scientific base for the practices documented.
- Blending the traditional wisdom with scientific knowledge, or modifying it with the help of scientific knowledge to improve its efficacy and livestock productivity.
Key words: indigenous knowledge; animal husbandry; technology development.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Since 1984 Krishi Vigyan Kendram Badgaon (VBKVK), an organisation in India, has been working on various aspects of goat husbandry including provision of healthcare. Through its health umbrella, VBKVK has succeeded in reducing the mortality rate of goat kids from 21.3% in 1991 to 5.8% in 1996 and the abortion percentage from 18.6% to 4.8%.
Though both VBKVK and the goat raisers realise the importance of healthcare, modern healthcare can not be provided on a sustainable basis without outside (especially NGO) intervention. As a cost-effective and practical solution to this problem, VBKVK decided to promote ethnoveterinary practices. In this context a study entitled "Ethnoveterinary Practices for Goats in Mewar and Marwar Regions of Rajasthan" was commissioned in 1996.
This study consists of following the aspects:
- Documentation and verification.
- Primary screening.
- Qualification and material collection.
- Validation trials.
- Goat Demonstration Unit.
- Farmer participatory research (FPR).
- Experience sharing and exchange.
The documentation work was done in Jodhpur, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Ajmer, and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan. These districts were selected with view of the migration route of the Rabaris - a community traditionally engaged in sheep and goat rearing and well-known for their wealth of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Moreover, a wider geographical coverage helped in identifying 'substitutes' (ingredients which can be alternatively used), as different areas have their own characteristic flora.
These areas were extensively toured to identify the ethnoveterinary practitioners in the villages (guni). The study team took informal interviews with about 100 such guni and documented about 350 ethnoveterinary practices for 20 different problems. Verification was done merely on the basis of internal and external consistency of the information. In some cases the evolution of a practice was traced to screen out actual effective treatments from superstitions.
At present, experts of VBKVK screen the practices documented according to the following parameters:
- Intensity and frequency of occurrence of the problem.
- Conditions under which a certain remedy is preferred for a problem.
- Effectiveness of the traditional remedy vis-a-vis modern medication.
- Costs and availability of the ingredients.
- Skills and expertise required to administer the remedy; possibility of side and adverse effects.
Such screening is essential as the traditional knowledge is highly 'context specific' in nature and ingredients. Some ingredients which are seasonally available will be stored at the Goat Demonstration Unit for future use. However, these practices can be promoted as an alternative to modern healthcare only if they are effective under local goat husbandry conditions. VBKVK's experience in other sectors like agriculture indicates that FPR is the best approach of doing such field testing. A group of goat raisers will test the selected practices under guidance of VBKVK. The practices which successfully pass FPR trials will be shared with goat raisers and local agencies interested in goat development.
Key words: field research; application of ethnoveterinary medicine; goat; documentation; validation; farmer participatory research; Rajasthan, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
S.K. Bhavsar, J.G. Sarvaiya, R.A. Patel, A.M. Thaker, M.P Verma, and J.K. Malik
Previous studies showed that the juice of leaves of Prosopis juliflora (mesquite, Gujarati: gando baval) possesses activity against some microorganisms. This study evaluated the wound healing activity of a 10% ointment made of the plant's leaf juice in calves. Wounds of 2 cm x 3 cm size were created surgically on either side of the back and were treated with 10% leaf juice ointment. The healing process was compared with that induced by simple ointment. The ointments were applied daily for 10 days and thereafter every second day until complete healing. The evaluation of wound healing was based on clinical, histological, and biomechanical studies. Wound tissues were collected at day 7, 14, and 28 after the start of the application of formulated ointment. In both groups, various clinical indices such as inflammatory reaction, granulation, and the contraction and epithelisation of tissues at different time intervals were almost similar. There were no marked differences in localisation of collagen fibres, elastin fibres, mucopolysaccharide concentration, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, and the tensile strength and extensibility of healing tissue in both groups at different stages of healing. The results indicate no significant difference in the wound healing effects of 10% ointment of leaf juice of Prosopis juliflora and simple ointment.
Key words: clinical study; medicinal plants; Prosopis juliflora; mesquite; calves; wound healing.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
The effects of Nutrospel, a commercial herbal immunostimulant, and the broad-spectrum antibiotic oxytetracycline were tested in 12 newborn hypogammaglobulinaemic cross-bred calves. The animals were divided into three groups of four calves each. The first group was fed with colostrum while the second and third groups did not receive any colostrum. All calves of the second group were treated with Oxytetracycline (Wolycycline, Wochardt, Bombay) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) intramuscularly (i.m.) daily for three days at the age of two and four weeks. Calves of the third group were treated with 20 g Nutrospel (Respel Pharma, Bangalore) daily orally in milk for 20 days and Oxytetracycline at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w. i.m. daily for three days at the age of two and five weeks. All groups were examined for clinical and immunobiochemical changes at different intervals. Colostrum-fed calves were normal and healthy. Colostrum-deprived calves of the second group had a marked immunosuppression which was associated with clinical changes like diarrhoea and dehydration, and 75% mortality. Their levels of serum total proteins, globulins, gammaglobulins, glucose, calcium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese as well as their body weights were significantly lower than those of the calves of the first group. In the third group, Nutrospel with antimicrobial therapy had stimulated resistance and growth as became evident from the control of fever, diarrhoea, naval ill, and mortality. In this group, the levels of serum total proteins, globulins, gammaglobulins, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc and manganese, as well as their body weight were significantly higher than those of the calves of the second group. The results indicated that the combined therapy of Nutrospel and Oxytetracycline controlled infections and mortality of hypogammaglobulinaemic calves through antimicrobial, immunostimulatory, and growth-promoting effects.
Key words: clinical study; Nutrospel; oxytetracycline; hypogammaglobulinaemia; calves.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
With the development of modern medicine, especially after the Second World War, traditional medical practices have been increasingly replaced and overlooked at the international level, mostly because many people regarded them as ineffective and useless. By contrast, modern medicine was thought to be able to solve almost all health problems of humans and animals. But this overestimation of modern medicine changed in the course of the 'green wave' since the 1970s, particularly in industrialised countries.
The 'green wave' has been characterised by an increasing demand for natural products in the form of drugs, food, and cosmetics and was mainly triggered by the side effects resulting from the increasing use of chemicals in various areas of life, including medicine. This movement towards a natural way of life has led to a reconsideration of traditional medical systems, since these are based on the use of natural products. Today herbal medicines have become big business. The market for phytomedicines in the United States of America is currently estimated at over US$ 1 billion annually. In the European Community, the annual sales value of herbal remedies has recently exceeded US$ 6 billion.
The reconsideration of traditional medical systems in the industrialised world and the fact that modern medicine is too expensive for many developing countries were the main reasons for the decision of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the 1970s to promote traditional medical systems, particularly by research into medicinal plants. One of the research objectives was to check scientifically the efficacy of the plants used in traditional medicine and to identify the principles responsible for genuine therapeutic effects. Subsequently, many medicinal plants have been investigated. In many cases a correlation between the traditional medical use and the pharmacological findings has been established and the active principles identified and isolated. Meanwhile some promising substances like artemisinin from Artemisia annua (antimalarial) and gossypol from Gossypium spp. (antifertility) have been discovered. Taxol from Taxus brevifolia Nutt. has rapidly become one of the leading anticancer drugs of the present time.
In contrast to traditional medicine for humans, traditional veterinary medicine (termed also ethnoveterinary medicine) has not yet been promoted at the international level and very little research has been done in this field. Most research has been limited to finding out which plants are used for which purposes. There has been little research into the efficacy of veterinary medicinal plants and there have been few attempts to identify the active principles. But many plants used in human medicine are also helpful for the understanding and sustaining the use of veterinary medicinal plants. That is why, on the basis of existing literature, we have compiled data on the efficacy and the biological and pharmacological properties of African medicinal plants used in both human and veterinary medicine. Huge amounts of data have come together, useful not only to Africa but also to other continents, as many plants occur in many parts of the world and are medically used in many areas. This is particularly true for tropical countries. A book with the results of this study will soon be published. This paper presents details on selected plants to show the correlation between traditional veterinary claims and chemical and pharmacological findings. Also, the problems related to plant investigations, especially to controversial results, will be discussed.
Key words: ethnoveterinary medicine; medicinal plants; efficacy; pharmacology; Africa.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
The Somali economy and culture is dominated by livestock production and ownership. The traditional veterinary knowledge of Somali pastoralists has been documented since at least the 1950s although only rarely has this information affected the design of livestock-related aid programmes. This paper summarises the existing literature on Somali ethnoveterinary language and practices, and relates traditional systems to veterinary "privatisation" and "paravet" projects in the 1990s. Evaluations and studies on newly emerging private veterinary services in Somali areas have identified local concerns regarding the loss of traditional skills and over-reliance on imported veterinary pharmaceuticals. The paper also discusses the co-existence of traditional livestock herding systems and more recent market-orientated livestock management. Both veterinary service delivery and livestock production systems in Somalia are changing in the absence of government.
The paper argues that although aid agencies will continue to promote western-style veterinary services in Somali occupied areas, the resilience of the Somali livestock economy, at both household and national levels, is based on traditional husbandry and veterinary skills which should be acknowledged and supported.
Key words: pastoralists; ethnoveterinary medicine; veterinary services; Somalia.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Amalendu Chakrabarti and Rahul Amin
Ketosis is a production disease in dairy cows which can substantially reduce milk yield. This study used 28 cows that were at least eight months pregnant and had ketone bodies in the urine along with mild levels of hepatic lipidosis (borderline ketosis). The cows were divided into four groups of seven cows each (treatment groups A1, B1, and C1 and a control group). Clinical signs and biochemical profiles of all four groups were monitored before and after treatment and two weeks after calving. Group A1 was treated with 30 ml of Livol PFS daily for 14 days. Group B1 was treated with 30 ml Livol PFS Plus daily for 14 days and 10 g of Hb Strong twice a day for seven days (polyherbal drugs marketed by M/s. Indian Herbs, Saharanpur). Group C1 received propanediol, a conventional drug, at a dosage of 100 ml twice a day for seven days. The control group did not receive any treatment. In group B1, ketotic features disappeared and remained absent even two weeks after calving while animals in groups A1, C1 and the control group showed ketotic features following calving. The results indicate that the combination of Livol PFS Plus and Hb Strong is more effective in combating ketosis than the other treatments. This paper discusses details of preventive aspects of such herbal preparations compared to conventional drugs against post-parturient production diseases.
Key words: clinical study; ketosis; dairy cows; Livol PFS Plus; Hb Strong; propanediol.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
T.U. Chinthu, B.K. Narainswami, and Sheeba Revi
This paper reports the results of a study on the traditional veterinary treatment methods of local healers. The study was conducted in South Kerala during 1997. Foot-and-mouth disease in cows is treated by smearing Azadirachta indica (neem) oil boiled with Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds on the affected parts. The animals are also fed with gruel prepared from rice porridge and Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seeds. Rinderpest is treated with a number of drinks that are simultaneously given: juice of Oxalis corniculata mixed with salted buttermilk; Murraya koenigii leaves roasted in a mud pot and mixed with a little water; and rice porridge cooked with the extract of Aegle marmelos. To control dysentery, leaves of Tragia involucra cooked in fermented bran and mixed with Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) are fed. Along with this, animals receive the water from boiling Murraya koenigii leaves. Stomach pain in cows is treated by feeding the cows with tender shoots of Piper betel L. (areca nut), Capsicum frutescens L. (green chillies), and Terminalia chebula (haritaki) in human urine. To control cough in cows, a decoction of dry Zingiber officinale (ginger) is fed to the cows. External parasites are controlled by applying a mixture prepared from Datura stramonium (ummam) and Tinospora cordifolia (amrith). To counteract tapioca leaf poisoning, cows are fed with leaves of Elephantopus scaber (anachuvadi) in buttermilk. The cows are then made to run, their body is massaged with hot water bags, and they are made to drink hot water with sugar. To treat flatulence in cows, they are fed a mixture of milk, Allium cepa (onion), and leaves of Annona squamosa (custard apple). While ethnoveterinary medicine is eco-friendly and cheap, it is tedious to prepare and not standardised. Hence, there is a need to standardise ethnoveterinary practices.
Key words: field research; ethnoveterinary treatments; foot-and-mouth disease; dysentery; stomach pain; cough; parasites; cattle; Kerala, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
N.P. Dakshinkar, D.B. Sarode, and A.S. Rao
Thirty-six 12-16 months old Sahiwal x Jersey cow calves naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into five groups. One group remained untreated (T), the others were treated with powder of dried neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves (T1), powder of dried Moringa oleifera seeds (T2), Indian Herbs Broad Spectrum Anthelmintic (IHBS) powder (T3), and Morantel Citrate (T4). The mean numbers of eggs per gram feces (EPG) as well as haemoglobin, serum iron, and serum copper were recorded on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after treatment. On day 28, the EPGs were 583 ± 192 (T), 1983 ± 631 (T1), 2900 ± 332 (T2), and 1066 ± 570 (T3). The variations were not significant. In group T4, however, the EPG on day 28 was significantly lower than the value measured on day 0. The haematobiochemical parameters did not differ significantly in any of the groups.
Key words: clinical study; medicinal plants; veterinary anthelmintics; Haemonchus contortus; neem; Moringa oleifera seeds; IHBS powder; Morantel Citrate; calves.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
N.P. Dakshinkar and D.B. Sarode
Local application of crude extracts of garlic, neem, and sitaphalas 1:10 (v/w) were effective against sarcoptic mange in dogs. Recovery rates for the three plants were 54%, 67%, and 44% respectively and the average numbers of days required for complete cure were 22 ± 0.6, 27 ± 1.7, and 28 ± 1.9 days. All treatments were refractory in treating Demodex spp. infection.
Key words: dog; sarcoptic mange; Demodex spp.; garlic; neem; sitaphalas.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
P. A. Deore
Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder. It adversely affects milk production whereby losses due to subclinical mastitis are more severe than those due to clinical cases. Controlling subclinical mastitis can reduce the losses in milk production substantially. Routinely, clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis are treated with antimicrobials both intramammarily and parenterally. The use of antimicrobials over long periods has triggered the development of resistant strains, which has resulted in the use of increasing doses of antimicrobials, causing the danger of increasing amounts of drug residues in milk, a potential biohazard.
Four veterinarians tested the herbal preparation Titali-M (Mycon Pharma, Pune) in subclinical and clinical cases of mastitis in 56 dairy cattle and buffaloes under field conditions. The drug was given orally.
After Titali-M treatment both the quantity and quality of milk improved. Swelling of the udder was reduced considerably within three days. Titali-M has anti-inflammatory and microbicidal properties.
Key words: clinical study; mastitis; herbal treatment; Titali-M; cattle.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
House flies and other ectoparasites can transmit diseases. Annona squamosa (custard apple) is a tropical tree and reportedly has effects on wounds and lice. This study tested the effects of various preparations from Annona squamosa seeds on eggs, larvae, and adult forms of house flies. The trials used Zurich, Chinese, and WHO strains of flies. Their breeding and maintenance followed standard methods. Annona squamosa seeds were applied as aqueous solutions, acetonated solutions, powder of dried seeds in concentrations of 10, 15, and 20%, and boiled and unboiled preparations in edible oil.
The powdered form had a marked effect on eggs and larvae, while adult flies seemed susceptible to acetone preparations. The aqueous solutions had some effect on egg hatching but the preparations in acetone were superior. The powder remarkably reduced the percentage of hatching eggs. The effect increased with increasing concentration of the powder. It was observed that concentrations above 10% showed variable larvicidal activity. This is pertinent in the treatment of wounds with maggots. It was also observed that the fresh preparation was more effective. The contact treatment on adult flies showed variable effects on all three strains of flies. Custard apple powder is reasonably useful in fly control and may help control the spread of diseases.
Key words: laboratory research; Annona squamosa seeds; custard apple; flies; ectoparasites.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Felix R. Doepmann
Literature on traditional veterinary medicine in Africa was evaluated mostly for therapeutic aspects. Historical and biographical references, anthropological questions, and the state of the art of writing only received attention when it was of significance in clarifying terminology for the purpose of identifying diseases. Examples from the works of anthropologists, linguists, and veterinarians show that critical analysis may result in different interpretations of the traditional veterinary medicine described. The critical review reveals that there is not one traditional veterinary medicine but every culture has its own specific healing system. Techniques for diagnosis, prevention, therapy, and the rating of success differ between the systems. Examples of texts, above all, allow an insight into the art of writing of some authors, which has an important impact on the interpretation of these sources. The paper discusses time reckoning, disease classification, and livestock individual values among different cultures. Examples from WoDaaBe, Tuareg, and Nuer traditional veterinary medicine include rectal examination, haematoscopy, and macroscopic examination of faeces and urine.
Key words: ethnoveterinary literature; WoDaabe; Tuareg; Nuer; Africa.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Scanning the literature on ethnomedicine has revealed a number of herbs that are claimed to be effective in the management of recurrent and intermittent fevers, malarial fevers, and spleeno- and hepatomegaly. Because neither ancient Ayurvedic literature nor publications on folk or tribal medical practices in India mention trypanosomosis (surra), it is imperative that herbs used against these conditions by traditional healers be scientifically evaluated against Trypanosoma evansi which produces intermittent fever, anaemia, jaundice, hepato- and spleenomegaly. It was therefore decided to screen the following indigenous plants both in vitro and in vivo against T. evansi: Achyranthes aspera, Aristolochia indica, Azadirachta indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Calotropis procera, Cannabis indica, Cassia occidentalis, Cissampelos pareira, Cyperus rotundus, Datura alba, Eclipta prostrata, Embelia ribes, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Moringa pterygosperma, Nyctanthes arbortristis, Ocimum sanctum, Parthenium hysterophorus, Pongamia glabra, Smilax china, Streblus asper, Tinospora cordifolia, and Xanthium strumarium. The plants were prepared as fresh juice and aqueous and alcoholic extracts.
It was observed that fresh juice of Xanthium strumarium leaves, Parthenium hysterophorus flowers, and Aristolochia indica stem possessed 100% trypanocidal activities in vitro. Fresh juices were effective at 1:20 dilution and alcoholic and aqueous extracts were effective in concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg/ml. Extracts prepared from the different parts (i.e., flower, leaf, bark, stem, or root) of all other plants did not show significant antitrypanosomal activities.
For the in vivo trials, mice were inoculated with 104 trypanosomes intraperitoneally and treated with preparations made from individual parts of plants. The tests showed that no plant material could clear the mice from trypanosomes. All experimental animals died within 6-10 days of infection. Treatments with alcoholic extracts prepared from Xanthium strumarium (100 mg/kg), Nyctanthes arbortristis (300 mg/kg), and Cannabis indica (250 mg/kg) seed significantly prolonged the mean survival time of the experimentally infected mice. Parthenium hysterophorus and Calotropis procera were found to be highly toxic to mice.
Based on these preliminary investigations, it is difficult to pinpoint one single plant which could cure surra in animals. Therefore, combinations of herbs possessing antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antianaemic properties in vivo and antitrypanosomal activity in vitro should be tested in cattle, horses, camels, and dogs experimentally infected with trypanosomes.
Key words: laboratory research; medicinal plants; Trypanosoma evansi; surra; herbal medicines; Xanthium strumarium; Parthenium hysterophorus; Aristolochia indica; Nyctanthes arbortristis; Cannabis indica; Calotropis procera.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Baldwin L. Dy
This paper draws the attention of veterinary professionals to the importance of natural products in the development of new prototype drugs. It stresses the adequacy of the veterinary medical approach as a research strategy and will, likewise, present recent research findings that may have significant impact and bearing on the animal healthcare systems being practised. Some traditional medicinal plants that have antimicrobial properties in vitro may not be able to exert their efficacy in vivo because they require specific ways of preparation or need to be mixed with certain other ingredients to be able to work.
Understanding Chinese traditional medicine as well as Philippine traditional medicinal practice could provide some of the solutions to this problem. Basic postulates in our modern organic chemistry and physical sciences could be used to interpret and extrapolate the traditional knowledge of the theories behind the efficacy of traditional medicine. In retrospect the rationale by which therapy is directed upon in basic ethnoveterinary medicine bears semblance in substance and form to some of the most basic postulates of organic chemistry and physical sciences, thus, providing credence, if not, validity to the systems approach.
In conclusion, the formulation and institution of policies and programmes on animal healthcare could be ascertained in the light of being relevant, appropriate, and integrating with the culture, thus, feasibly ensuring its implementation.
Key words: veterinary medical systems approach; efficacy of medicinal plants; development of prototype drugs.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Consultations with farmers in the neighbouring villages of the Visayas State College for Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte, the Philippines, revealed that the farmers were using 18 plants as dewormers for goats. However, when these plants were tested as dewormers, only Mimosa pudica and Chrysophyllum cainito were found to be effective, and only Tinospora rumphii was noted as being highly effective. The efficacy was based on the reduction of eggs per gram faeces. Pharmacological studies of Tinospora rumphii revealed that the LD50 was 7.95 g/kg body weight. This means that at this dosage 50% of the experimental mice showed uncoordinated movements, tremor, and/or death. On the other hand, the ED50 of the plant was 4.5 g/kg b.w.. This means that at this dosage 50% of the experimental animals were cured of their worm burden. Studying the therapeutic index of the plant drug, it was observed that the crude extract of Tinospora rumphii at a dosage of 4.5 g/kg b.w. was as effective as commercial dewormers in reducing the worm burden of experimental goats.
Key words: laboratory research; medicinal plants; Mimosa pudica; Chrysophyllum cainito; Tinospora rumphii; goats; worms; pharmacology; Philippines.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
C.R. Field and S.P. Simpkin
During the past nine years FARM-Africa's Pastoralist Development Project has assisted camel owning nomads in northern Kenya to become more self-reliant in food. This has been achieved by improving the productivity of their livestock, especially camels, sheep, and goats.
In order to understand the real problems of pastoral nomads, it has been necessary to go to them, live with them, and sometimes adopt their traditional practices. Project field teams are highly mobile living in traditional Somali huts which may be carried by camels between sites. From the base camp special outreach services are provided on foot to remote areas using camels to transport much needed veterinary and human drugs which are administered by animal health assistants and community nurses. Demonstration herds of camels are kept and our staff faces the reality of searching for pasture, water, and secure areas free from disease for their animals.
Various diseases comprise the most important constraints to camel production identified by pastoralists. Numerous training workshops have been held to raise awareness and impart skills concerning camel health. Community drug handlers have been trained and certified by government officers. During training, special sessions are held with the aim of strengthening traditional values and practices. Participants are encouraged to avoid tunnel vision where only the syringe, needle, and expensive antibiotics are seen at the end. Instead they are made aware of the many alternatives involving traditional ethnoveterinary medicine which they may apply especially for the prevention of diseases. Their knowledge concerning ethnic names, description, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (including efficacy of treatment) of diseases is then shared freely among participants.
The main outcome of our work has been an increasing population of camels which produce more to feed the increasing demands from nomads. Camels are now valued highly and are increasing their geographical range both within Kenya and beyond its borders in Tanzania and parts of southern Ethiopia. A manual of ethnoveterinary practices will prove invaluable for those acquiring camels for the first time and as a means of sharing information from widely scattered pastoral communities facing similar problems in remote parts of the globe.
Key words: pastoralists; health services; indigenous knowledge; camels; Kenya.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
It is stressed that ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) will only be widely embraced by future veterinarians and animal scientists if they are appropriately introduced to it by their teachers. The attitudes of these teachers to EVM are therefore pivotal. If the attitudes of teachers are to be changed, a starting point in so doing is to establish what they are at the present time. In order to do this, a postal survey of the current level of interest in EVM in 385 veterinary training and research institutions around the world was undertaken and is reported.
The survey investigated a number of areas including: current trends in attitudes of scientists and farmers to EVM; the current scale of the teaching of EVM; the arguments in favour of and against giving greater attention to EVM; the assistance required if any, to advance EVM as a taught/researched subject. A response rate of 17% was achieved. It was found that interest in EVM among the scientific colleagues of the respondents was increasing while its interest to farmers was changing relatively little.
Current teaching time devoted to EVM was found to be very low to non-existent. The majority of respondents felt that EVM was a subject to be taught within existing subjects rather than as a subject in its own right. The main arguments for giving greater attention to EVM centred on: farmers are using it therefore it should be investigated; 'modern methods' are sometimes unavailable and have limitations; a belief that there is untapped potential in EVM; changes in public opinion favouring more 'natural' approaches to health maintenance. Arguments against EVM centred strongly on the present lack of scientific validation. In order to advance EVM as a subject the main requirements were seen as more dissemination of relevant information and scientific validation of existing practices.
The overriding implication arising from the survey is the need for standardised evaluation of EVM practices. A methodology for such evaluations is suggested with reference to anthelmintic plants. It is concluded that EVM needs to adopt a professional rather than an evangelical approach if it is to progress as a sustainable method of animal healthcare.
Key words: survey; ethnoveterinary medicine; attitudes of scientists and academics; evaluation method; anthelmintic plants.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Farming communities often adjust their operations according to the traditional calendar (panchang) which differs from the international calendar. The rural people strongly believe that the position of stars and the phases of the moon influence climate, crop, and livestock performance. They also believe that the direction in which an animal is standing at the time of insemination and other factors effect conception. To verify these beliefs, field data from 6175 cattle collected at cattle breeding centres in Mujaffarnagar District from 1981 to 1991 were analysed.
Overall conception rate at village level was 47.4 ± 2.3%. Cows facing east and north showed significantly higher conception rates (50.0 ± 1.2 and 49.8 ± 1.4 % respectively) than those facing west and south (46.1 ± 1.3 and 44.8 ± 1.3% respectively). The effect of direction was more pronounced in local cows than in crossbreds.
Conception rate was highest (50.1 ± 1.2%) during full moon phase (ekadashi to panchami) and lowest (45.82 ± 1.25%) in the lower lunar phase. Cows inseminated on Wednesdays and Thursdays showed significantly higher conception rates (50.0 ± 1.8% and 51.6 ± 1.8% respectively) than those inseminated on Fridays (43.6 ± 1.8%). Animals inseminated on hasta nakshtra had a significantly lower conception rate (40.8 ± 3.6%) than those inseminated on revati (53.6 ± 3.6%), ashwini (51.2 ± 3.2%), uttar bhadrapada (51.9 ± 3.6%), and mul (51.9 ± 3.6%). The animals inseminated on vruddhi, dhruva, vajra, vyatipat, harshal, and siddhi yoog had the highest conception rates ranging from 50.1 ± 3.4% to 54.2 ± 3.9%, those inseminated on priti and ayshman the lowest (42.0 ± 3.9% and 41.5 ± 3.9% respectively). The effect of karan was marginally significant (p<0.04).
The animals inseminated during shukla paksh in uttarayana (December to May) conceived more frequently than those in krishna paksha while the conception rate was significantly lower when the animals were inseminated during the same paksha during dakshinayana (June to November).
Further data and analysis are needed to gain a better understanding of the influence of the above mentioned factors on livestock breeding. Such studies may provide insights in traditional believes and may be of use in field programmes.
Key words: traditional beliefs; livestock breeding; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Neem (Azadirachta indica), an esteemed evergreen plant, is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is hardy and can withstand extreme ecological conditions. Parts of neem used include leaves, bark, seed kernel, and oil. Several diverse chemical compounds and their derivatives like azadirachtin and nimbicidin, have been isolated from neem products. Such compounds possess varied biological properties and impart bitterness to neem. Bitter compounds exhibit repellent, sterilising, and antifertility effects in insects, and are hence employed in the manufacture of pesticides. Processed neem seed cake is also a good protein supplement in livestock feeding. Such products have been screened in experimental animals and have shown both beneficial and deleterious effects. Hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and antinematodal effects of neem derivatives are well documented. Aqueous extracts of neem seeds, bark, or leaves exhibit potent immunostimulant activity through both humoral and cell-mediated response. Spermicidal action of neem oil in the vaginal tract of rats and monkeys is well understood. Raw neem seed cake when fed to rats, rabbits, and chicken for sufficiently long periods has caused tissue damage as well as physiological changes including antitesticular action. Low levels of neem seed cake feeding to layers did not affect egg production but levels beyond 15% of the diet reduced egg production and affected erythropoiesis. Azadirachtin has shown dose- and tissue-specific inhibition of glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione and UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity in liver, lung, kidney, and brain of rats. In view of some beneficial effects, neem has a promising role in animal health and production.
Key words: Azadirachta indica; neem; medicinal properties.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Jagdish C. Gupta
In India ethnoveterinary practice has a long tradition. Shalihotra, Nakul, and King Nal were regarded as excellent veterinary physicians. Before the 1950's when the antibiotics were discovered, veterinary hospitals treated their patients with local herbs, spices, and local chemicals.
Sometimes veterinary doctors are not available in the villages, particularly at night. Animals are then treated with ingredients available in the kitchen or village shops. I have been practising for the last 40 years. When villagers come for advice and it is not possible to visit their farms, I recommend the following ethnoveterinary ingredients which are easily available for the farmers.
- Astringents: Acacia catechu, chalk, bael (Aegle marmelos), rice.
- Appetisers: ajwaine, black salt, chirota (Swertia chirata), kutaki etc.
- Expectorants: liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), ammonium chloride.
- Wounds and injuries: alum, marigold.
- Urinary diseases: potassium nitrate, gokharu.
- Parasitic diseases: kabila, areca nut, copper sulphate.
- Deficiency diseases: proteins, minerals, vitamins.
- Retention of placenta: bamboo leaves, ajwaine.
- Tympanitis: linseed, turpentine, sodium biocarbonate.
With regards to infectious diseases, prophylactic indigenous vaccinations are advised to all animals according to season and locality.
Key words: ethnoveterinary practices; local herbs; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
S. Hajare, S. Chandra, S.K. Tandan, and J. Lal
This study tested the anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic extract of Dalbergia sissoo leaves in different models of inflammation in rats. The extract was orally administered at dosages of 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. Carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema models were employed to study the extract's anti-inflammatory activity. In this model, the extract significantly inhibited acute inflammation at dosages of 300 to 1000 mg/kg. The extract also significantly reduced the weight of granulamous tissue from chronic inflammation induced by cotton-pellet granuloma. Furthermore, 300 and 1000 mg/kg of the extract significantly inhibited dye leakage in acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. No ulcerogenic effects on the gastric mucosa of rats were recorded during acute and chronic gastric irritation tests. The study concluded that the alcoholic extract of D. sissoo leaves produces significant anti-inflammatory effects in different models of inflammation, without having side effects on the gastric mucosa.
Key words: laboratory research; pharmacology; Dalbergia sissoo leaves; anti-inflammatory properties; rats.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Khan Shaheen Hamed
Cost, inaccessibility, and other problems associated with the conventional animal healthcare system have led to the rediscovery of traditional rural wisdom on this subject. Ethnoveterinary practices are often cheap, safe, and based on local resources and strength. They can provide useful alternatives to conventional animal healthcare. But unfortunately these practices are little documented and increasingly lost because they are passed on from generation to generation through oral communication. To prepare a package of simplified, effective traditional veterinary treatments for rural Medak of Andhra Pradesh, information on ethnoveterinary medicine by disease and treatment was collected and documented. Since several treatments exist for each disease, an attempt has been made to validate treatments on an empirical basis by keeping quantitative and qualitative records of cases and their treatments. Thus details of 160 indigenous veterinary treatments have been collected for 24 animal diseases.
Key words: field research; ethnoveterinary knowledge; alternative animal healthcare; Andhra Pradesh, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
One basic goal of ethnoveterinary research is the improvement of human and animal well-being, including health and productivity, by means of holistic analyses of animal management systems. Such analyses require that the conditions of health and illness be defined and understood within the context of biophysical, sociocultural, religious, economic, educational, political, and even legislative systems in which humans and animals are embedded. In practice such holism has proven elusive. It seems particularly seductive to assume that western conceptual categories of what an animal is, does and its place in the world are universal, and to proceed on this basis. This paper insists that what an animal is, its essence, its purpose, and its qualities vary cross-culturally and in particular in relation to socioeconomic conditions. Ethnoveterinary researchers must try to fathom how animals are conceived and perceived as a prerequisite to understanding how animals are treated and placed in various agricultural systems.
To provide a concrete demonstration of the above points, this paper describes and compares conceptions of cattle in five different sociocultural systems. In each case, a local conception of cattle is traced to its surrounding social, economic, and cultural context. Cattle are placed in their respective farming, herding, or ranching systems, which are in turn placed in the framework of local, regional, and national society. In each case, the observed (etic) system of cattle management is explained in (emic) terms of local knowledge and meanings. Tentatively, the five cases are: 1) highland Ecuadorian peasant farmers, 2) Indian Hindu farmers, 3) Nuer pastoralists, 4) ancient Hebrews of the Bible, and 5) North American ranchers. The distinct farming systems provide evidence that cattle management is a function of how they are perceived; and their perception is a function of the surrounding socioeconomic system including religious beliefs and practices, political structures, social organisation, and historical residues. The diverse bio-geographic settings also exert their influence.
Mary Douglas' work on animal categorisation serves as a useful model for tracing the relationship between society and animal conceptions. Following Douglas, animals are categorised as an extension of human categories, i.e., of the principles that serve for ordering human relationships. Since the order of human relationships is variable and a product of multiple causation, it is reasonable to suspect that the perception of animals, and thus their management and health status, are likewise locally determined and highly diverse. The task of this work is to trace out how these conceptual categories become concrete cattle management systems in five different times and places. The lesson to be drawn is that the cow as a machine to convert kilo calories from one form to another is specific to commercial ranching in urban-industrialised societies. It is not a cross-culturally valid or useful model and is positively misleading when sought after and applied in dissimilar settings.
Key words: cattle; crosscultural comparison; human-animal relationship; conception of animals.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Katrien van't Hooft
Livestock production constitutes an important element in the survival strategies of the large majority of rural families in Bolivia. A whole range of different livestock activities are being employed, intricately related with agricultural and non-agricultural elements. These strategies include both traditional and western-based production methods. The relation between the two is as complex as the survival strategies themselves; still it is possible to confirm that all families use the combination one way or other. The growing need for cash money touches even the most remote rural village, which has called for changes in survival and production strategies. Both in human and veterinary medicine traditional healing is often combined with western medicine. To understand the relation between the two, one has to look at livestock keeping under different circumstances. In a study on family level livestock keeping recently undertaken in Bolivia, it became clear that the following aspects play a role in the relation between the two:
- The objective of keeping animals (market or non-market oriented).
- Differences of uses between the species.
- Specialisation in one species, besides other species managed traditionally.
- Who manages and decides over the animals.
- Socioeconomic circumstances and changes.
- Ecological circumstances and changes.
- Cultural and religious aspects.
- Family situation and specific objectives.
- Influence of projects.
- The characteristics of the basic problems affecting the animals.
- Availability of "western expertise" and "ethnoveterinary expertise".
In Bolivia rapid loss of ethnoveterinary knowledge is a sad reality. There is an urgent need for activities to counteract this process. The little research done in this field is hampered by two difficulties: on the one hand inexperience because of western-oriented formal education; on the other hand isolation of these research activities. Indigenous knowledge research can easily become a mere academic exercise loaded with superiority if we do not look at it in the context of the survival strategies of poor rural families. If we want to understand ethnoveterinary medicine with the objective of stimulating poor rural families, it is essential to look at farmers' strategies in combining traditional and western elements that fit their specific circumstances and needs.
Key words: field research; family-level livestock keeping; ethnoveterinary medicine; choice of healthcare system; Bolivia.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
A.G. Jagun and P.A. Abdu
In Nigeria, the advent of the Europeans and the introduction of modern medical practices in both human and animals began in the early 20th century. It greatly eroded the peoples' beliefs in their local medical practices. Until recently, traditional medical practices were looked down upon as being primitive or inferior to conventional medicine. Most traditional practitioners go about their practices secretly or tend to rely increasingly on modern practices. Consequently, many indigenous practices commonly passed on orally by elders from generation to generation are getting lost. Resulting from the new global re-awakening and recognition of the importance of indigenous practices, interest in traditional veterinary practices in Nigeria started earnestly in 1980, perhaps as a "child of necessity" due to the prevailing economic squeeze, coupled with high costs of the few available veterinary drugs.
This paper presents the results of a recent field survey conducted in 11 states in Nigeria by the National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria. A total of 167 farmers, located in 58 towns and villages, scattered over 22 of the 500 Local Government Areas were visited. Some 82 livestock diseases and other animal health problems were identified in cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, and rabbits. Information was obtained on 629 different local remedies used by local livestock farmers in these areas. The paper recommends the need for an in-depth study of ethnoveterinary practices in Nigeria so that the country can overcome its over-dependence on foreign veterinary drugs.
Key words: field research; ethnoveterinary medicine; Nigeria.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
R.G. Jani and P.R. Patel
A study on neonatal parasitic diarrhoea in buffalo calves from villages nearby Anand (Kaira District, Gujarat, India) revealed a high occurrence of Neoascaris vitulorum infection. The egg numbers per gram faeces (EPG) of 144 diarrhoeic calves were determined using Mc.Master's technique. The faecal samples from animals fed on whey and salt contained significantly fewer parasite eggs than samples from animals not fed on whey and salt. The reduction of EPG in the group fed on whey and salt might be due to purgative and laxative actions of whey and salt. The findings are discussed.
Key words: clinical study; Neoascaris vitulorum; neonatal diarrhoea; buffalo calves; whey; salt; Gujarat, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
R.G. Jani, S.K. Raval, and P.R. Patel
Skin diseases in livestock cause annoyance, uneasiness, itching, and hide damage, reducing milk production and income from the sale of animals. A clinical study was made on ectoparasites which cause parasitic dermatitis in animals. During clinical camps organised in villages nearby Anand, 42 buffaloes with clinical dermatitis were presented. Their skin lesions were examined and recorded. Skin scrapings were collected and processed for microscopical examination. Twenty-eight buffaloes had Sarcoptes spp., 10 had Psoroptes spp. and four had mixed infections with both mites.
These buffaloes were used to study the efficacy of an ethnomedicine made from the decoction of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, and camphor. A medicated bath was advised for alternative days followed by the topical application of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) on the affected area of the body. The microscopical examination of skin scrapings on day 7, 14, and 21 post therapy revealed complete absence of developmental stages of the above mites on day 21 post therapy. By this day, the clinical dermatitis lesions were also completely cleared. The present findings suggest the value of the above trials. The acaricidal efficacy of the ethnomedicine is discussed.
Key words: clinical study; medicinal plants; Sarcoptes; Psoroptes; acaricide; Azadirachta indica; neem; Nicotiana tabacum; tobacco; camphor; buffalo; Gujarat, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
T.N. Jayatileka and M.N.M. Ibrahim
People have learned through trial and error how to use various medications to alleviate diseases and suffering of animals. The indigenous knowledge thus evolved is highly specialised and differs from that found in the Sathva Ayurveda or Ayurvedic texts on veterinary science. In the light of the progressing loss of indigenous knowledge, it is important to revitalise the application of information stored in ancient palm leaf manuscripts and other documents. This paper reports the results of a study of a 146-year-old palm leaf manuscript by two indigenous physicians.
Written in simple Sinhala language, the manuscript contains more than 1000 prescriptions for cattle diseases. Cattle are differentiated into breeds or name groups. Raja cattle are believed to be more susceptible to a disease entity known as adappan (nasal discharge and tremors) than other cattle breeds. Identification of breed is an important diagnostic tool that relates to the genetic resistance of cattle to different diseases. Diseases are diagnosed with the help of in-depth knowledge of animal husbandry, clinical experience, and the establishment of human-animal psychic bonds.
The manuscript describes disease signs, treatments, medications, mode of drug administration, burning of vital points (moxibustion), bleeding, and specific interventions of a spiritual nature such as yanthra or kem. The striking feature of treatment regimes is the incorporation of both material (visible) and spiritual (invisible) aspects to obtain a satisfactory cure. The many different treatments with medicinal herbs are based on the understanding of the medicinal properties of the herbs and other natural resources. The preparations are commonly made of a variety of ingredients available at farm level such as various medicinal herbs, different plant parts, ant hill mud, animal products (milk products, eggs, bone meal, bat excreta), and human urine. The ingredients are usually combined with a vehicle such as ginger essence, betel juice, thippili (Piper nigrum) juice, lemon juice, water, and coconut milk or water. The most common route for drug administration is through the mouth. The nila or vital points of the body akin to acupuncture are popular application sites for medications which are burnt according to specific patterns to stimulate the immune system. Other routes of drug administration include skin, nose, ear, and anus. Bloodletting from certain specific blood vessels and the tip of the tail helps in the diagnosis and prognosis of certain disease conditions. Direct hand manipulation is a common method used to relieve constipation, dystocia, and retained placenta. Subjecting animals to spiritual medications and casting spells for immobilisation are specialised areas that are not yet fully investigated nor understood. The blessing of livestock herds to prevent the entry of contagious diseases is an important feature of sociocultural perceptions that prevailed during ancient times. A good example is the vows and offerings to the Mangara Pooja deity assigned to the indigenous buffalo, that are still practised.
Key words: ancient palm leaf manuscript; cattle diseases; traditional veterinary medicine; Sinhala language; Sri Lanka.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
V.L. Jayshree, T.K. Narainswami, and B.K. Narainswami
In the ancient past great importance has been given to the usage of indigenous medicines for the treatment of animal diseases. For curing common diseases ethnoveterinary medicine can be used instead of allopathic medicine which is costly and often has side effects. This paper presents information collected from local animal healers. Dogs infested with worms can be treated with Carica papaya L. (papaya) seeds. Collect the seeds from ripened fruits, dry them in the shade, and powder them. Mix one teaspoon of seed powder in milk and jaggery for taste, feed the dog with this paste for three consecutive days twice a day. The treatment should be repeated once after 14 days. This medicine has been found to work well against all sorts of worms but not against tapeworms. A remedy for tapeworms is Piper betel (betel nut) boiled in milk. Collect five to six nuts, powder them, and boil them with 100 ml of milk. Boil the milk until it reduces to 50 ml. Then cool it to room temperature and feed it as a single dose in the evening on four consecutive days. This treatment needs to be repeated once after six months. Besides administering these medicines, feed Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) and two cloves of Allium sativum (garlic) daily to act as guards against worms in the gastrointestinal tract.
Key words: ethnoveterinary medicine; dogs; deworming.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Basavaprabhu Jirli, Prabhat Kumar Jha, and Madhukar Chugh
A study was conducted to ascertain the awareness and acceptance of ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) by animal scientists and document the scientists' perceptions regarding ethnoveterinary medicine and practices. The findings reveal that the majority of the scientists are aware of EVM. A considerable number, however, are not ready to accept EVM as such. The majority advocate systematic research before making widespread recommendations. A good number of scientists opined that ethnoveterinary medicines can be adopted. To find out how EVM is communicated, respondents were asked how they came to know about EVM. Indigenous channels (parents, grandparents, farmers, friends, neighbours, etc.) played a greater role than formal communication channels (magazines, journals, booklets, books, etc.). A considerable number of scientists rated 21 of 34 listed practices and medicines as not having side effects on the production potential of animals. Most scientists had a positive attitude towards the scientific validity of EVM.
The majority of the animal scientists felt that the Indian traditional knowledge on EVM and other indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) is being eroded and hence animal scientists are prepared to advocate EVM resources if these are scientifically proven. More than half of the respondents stated that they have advised ethnoveterinary medicines to be used in certain cases. Although scientists are only a little aware about NGOs working on EVM/ITK, they are prepared to associate with NGOs in conducting research on and conserving EVM. Scientists unanimously agreed that legal protection should be provided for EVM. The study infers that the scientific community is becoming aware of the drawbacks and dangers of unprecedented technological advances that have caused ecological and environmental imbalance. In this context, scientists are willing to explore alternatives for sustainable development. Hence, the government and NGOs should make concerted efforts to exploit the hidden potential of the scientists to achieve sustainable development through indigenous devices.
Key words: survey; ethnoveterinary medicine; attitude of scientists; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Akkara J. John
Action for Food Production (AFPRO) is a Delhi-based NGO that helps small local NGOs with various development activities. Realising the need for strengthening veterinary services in rural areas, it initiated in 1993 an alternate approach involving 48 NGOs from 10 states of India. With funding support from the Rajiv Gandhi Foundation and Catholic Relief Services, the project established a team of barefoot technicians (BFT) chosen by the respective NGOs. This paper reports the results of this project up to 1997.
AFPRO's training programme for the BFTs involves veterinary dispensaries of the Animal Health Department in the different states. Training covers animal health control, storage, transport, and use of vaccines, use of ethnoveterinary medicine, control of ecto- and endoparasites, first aid, dealing with cuts, burns, fractures, and other techniques. Emphasis is given on the use of ethnoveterinary medicine for most minor ailments and a kit is provided to the BFTs. Upon training and orientation, the BFTs are involved in creating awareness about livestock health management, health control, first aid, and treating minor ailments. AFPRO's training programme also includes refresher training.
Based on indicators such as control of disease outbreaks, mortality in small ruminants and poultry, and acceptance of vaccination and deworming programmes, the results obtained till 1997 are very encouraging. Farmers pay the costs of treatment and disease control and find the expenses reasonable. For minor ailments the BFTs prefer ethnoveterinary medicine.
It would be useful to study the ethnoveterinary practices of the different areas since there are regional variations in the use and popularity of medicines. These practices should be validated and promoted regionally.
Key words: village animal healthcare; ethnoveterinary medicine; barefoot technician; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
The objective of the study was to identify indigenous veterinary remedies which farmers use to treat livestock in Malawi. It was carried out as a case study survey among smallholder farmers in rural areas. Further work included screening tests on the effectiveness of medicines and evaluation of handling practices, namely extraction methods and storage time. Five non-dipping and two dipping areas were selected and visited several times between August 2 and September 17, 1995. A total of 53 livestock farmers were interviewed. These farmers learnt about the remedies from ancestors (93%) and through dreams (6%). Various leaves, roots, barks, or whole plant samples of 69 plants were collected from the farmers for botanic identification. This identification was done according to literature and at the National Herbarium in Zomba. In addition, farmers used animal parts, salt, soil, and dung as medicines. They also practised bloodletting, wound care, cauterisation, and obstetrics. Farmers reported that the medicines sometimes worked and other times not.
Screening tests were done under controlled conditions on tick and flea infestation of cattle and chicken respectively. Other tests were done on round worm infestation in goats. It was found that some of the medicines were highly effective. For example, those used against ticks and fleas. While others were not. For example, those used against worms. Evaluation of the handling practices was done on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick larvae using the extract from the tuber of Physostigma mesoponticum Taub in a larval packet method. The results showed that the paste could be used effectively twice. Its extract could be stored and used for two weeks at 21.5-24oC with a minimum of 22oC and a maximum of 30oC and at 85-98% relative humidity. The survey findings do not reflect the extent of the use of indigenous veterinary remedies in Malawi because the work was a case study. Also the tests were done under controlled conditions and there is need for field trials. Further investigations in this field are needed.
Key words: field research; laboratory research; clinical study; ethnoveterinary medicine; Rhipicephalus appendiculatus; ticks; Physostigma mesoponticum Taub; Malawi.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
K. Kansonia and M. Ansay
The objective of this work was to identify consistencies (and inconsistencies) in the use of medicinal plants. It started with a databank established by PRELUDE, an international network based in Belgium. The databank is devoted to traditional veterinary medicine of sub-Saharan Africa. To test the veterinary knowledge of rural people, we studied consistencies between botanical characteristics of medicinal plants, their veterinary usage, and similarities of usage with traditional human medicine. We found that this method is feasible and can be recommended in the investigation and evaluation of multiple data in databanks.
Applied to the old knowledge, selected across ages, this method both allows the identification of the most promising plants for research of new medicines and opens the way to the next phase, i.e., standardisation of the plants whose activities have been demonstrated. These plants can then be cultivated in gardens.
With this method, we have been able to determine the priorities of breeders and traditional practitioners in animal health in the Great Lakes region in Central Africa. Their priorities include diarrhoea, verminosis, East Coast Fever, mastitis, injuries, and wounds. We have identified plants that are "popular remarkable", "secret", or "commonly used in veterinary and human medicine". This ancestral knowledge is validated by documentary research and investigation of the plants' pharmacological and phytochemical properties. The example of remarkable plants used by traditional practitioners for treating diseases of the digestive tract shows that phytochemistry and pharmacology confirm the usage of more than 50% of these plants.
Once this work is accomplished, we must inform rural people of the activity (or lack thereof) of certain plants contained in their remedies. This recognition and above all, this exchange of information will help rural people to preserve the biodiversity of their environment.
New molecules identified through research on traditional knowledge are a starting point for modern science. This knowledge is the unique medical resource for more than 80% of the population of the world. It is necessary to evaluate it and to make it more homogeneous, more efficient, less mysterious, and more profitable to holders and users.
Key words: database; medicinal plants; ethnoveterinary medicine; validation; important livestock diseases; Great Lakes region; central Africa.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Brigitte A. Kaufmann and Christian G. Hülsebusch
In the Horn of Africa, dromedaries are kept by pastoral people mainly for milk production and as transport animals. These arid and semiarid areas are characterised by scarce and highly variable forage and water availability, to which dromedaries are well adapted. As calf mortality is critical for herd productivity, causes of calf losses were investigated in three pastoral dromedary husbandry systems and the traditional veterinary knowledge concerning calf diseases was gathered. The present paper is based on results of a comparative analysis of dromedary husbandry systems of Rendille, Gabra, and Somali pastoralists in northern Kenya. Progeny history data of 1506 Rendille, 789 Gabra, and 1206 Somali camel calves born during 1980-1995 allowed us to calculate mortality rates and to establish respective loss causes.
Mortality up to weaning at 12 months of age was 27% in Rendille, 22% in Gabra, and 31% in Somali calves. Losses caused by diseases (LcD) account for 59%, 71%, and 82% of losses in Rendille, Gabra, and Somali calves respectively. Further causes are effects of drought, predation, and accidents. In each camel population, three major diseases are responsible for about two-thirds of LcD in calves. These are diarrhoea (33%), septicaemia (18%) and tick intoxication (15%) in Rendille; diarrhoea (21%), septicaemia (24%), and orf (25%) in Gabra; diarrhoea (23%), skin necrosis (23%) and ilgoff (28%) in Somali. Pastoralists' assessment of important calf diseases was established and their importance ranking, symptom description, and different traditional treatment methods are presented.
The study shows that herders' perception of disease importance matches well with the actual experienced losses due to disease in the past. Since only few diseases account for a major part of losses, specifically targeted activities are likely to have a high impact on improving the animal health situation. The knowledge of the pastoralists has to be considered a valuable resource when planning these activities, be it in the field of extension, delivery of animal health services, or epidemiological research.
Key words: field research; indigenous knowledge; animal husbandry; camel calves; causes of mortality; calf losses; diseases; Rendille; Graba; Somali; Kenya.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
N.H. Kelawala and Amresh Kumar
In China, acupuncture has been effectively used for ages to treat various ailments of both humans and animals. Electroacupuncture (EA) is an improvement of this technology. Acupuncture techniques are now gaining popularity outside of China but are not extensively used in India. Studies were carried out to observe analgesic and therapeutic effects in dogs.
Dogs were subjected to electroacupuncture stimulation of acupoints BL-23, GV-6, ST-36, SP-6, and GV-26 in group I while at ST-36, SP-6, TW-8, GV-6, LU-1, and TW-8 in group II. Analgesic effects for experimental abdominal pelvic surgery were recorded. The intensity of muscle relaxation and analgesia was greatest in animals of group II. After EA, heart rate and respiration rate significantly increased (p<0.05), whereas an increase in rectal temperature and decreases in tidal and minute volume remained insignificant (p>0.05). The recovery was quick, smooth, and uncomplicated in both groups.
Therapeutic effect of EA was studied in 16 dogs in which paresis was experimentally induced through axonotmesis of the sciatic nerve. The animals were randomly divided in two groups of eight dogs each. The experimental group was subjected to EA at acupoints ST-36, ST-32, BL-30, BL-67, GB-30, and GB-34 while the other group was kept as control. The animals of the EA group revealed better wound conditions and no operative infection after the operation compared to the control group. All animals were subjected daily to neurological examination. The dogs in the treatment group almost regained their normal state by day 30 and the signs of paresis disappeared completely. The animals of the control group remained abnormal up to 60 days after induction of paresis. The results indicate that EA can be used to treat paresis if there are no spinal cord disorders. The paper discusses the advantages and limitations of the EA technique for analgesia and treating paresis.
Key words: clinical study; electroacupuncture; analgesia; paresis; dog.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
N.H. Kelawala, Rajesh Tripathi, and Amresh Kumar
This investigation was carried out in twelve dogs divided into two groups of six animals each: in one group, the resuscitation effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at nasal philtrum (GV 26) point were studied. The other group was kept as control. All animals were anaesthetised with 30 mg/kg body weight of thiopentone sodium intravenously. The animals of the EA treatment group were subjected to EA at GV 26 point after 10 minutes of induction. Cardiopulmonary parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, tidal volume, minute volume, and mean arterial blood pressure were studied for both groups. Animals of the EA treatment group showed a significant decrease in the duration of anaesthesia and time for complete recovery.
Key words: clinical study; electroacupuncture; dogs; resuscitation, anaesthesia.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Kemparaja, B.K. Narainswami, and Vidya Kulkarni
This paper presents some ethnoveterinary practices employed to treat affections of skin and limbs. These treatments were learnt from animal owners and traditional healers (nati vaidyas) in India, tried on several animals and found to be quite effective.
Allergic oedema, malignant oedema, and eczema can be cured by local application and oral feeding of Aristolochia indica (eswari), Clerodendrum inerme (hisamdhari) and Andrographis paniculata (nela bevu) leaves. Mange and fungal infections of the skin can be treated with applications of Argemone mexicana (datturi) seed paste, Azadirachta indica (neem) stem decoction, or Thespesia populnea (huvarsi) tree latex. External parasites are killed by the application of crushed Annona squamosa (custard apple) and Leucas aspera (thumbe) leaves. Haemorrhages are controlled by applying any of the following: juice extract from the core of Musa paradisica (banana) stem, juice from leaves of Tridax procumbens (haddike), coffee, or turmeric powder. Udder oedema can be reduced by piercing Coix lacryma-jobi (kothi) thorns into the skin. Abscesses are made to mature by the application of finely ground white stone with butter or fomentation with warm common salt. Firing is used in young animals to increase disease resistance and is done over the joints to treat chronic affections of the joints. Fractures are immobilised with a strip of cloth soaked in red soil paste, or by using bamboo sticks or fresh Dodonaea viscosa (bhandri) sticks as external devices. The efficacy of these practices is to be tested in comparison with other systems of medicines and only proven practices are to be advocated.
Key words: field research; large animals; limb diseases; skin diseases; ethnoveterinary treatments; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
N.D. Khanna and U.K. Bissa
In the arid zone in India, the camel is an integral part of the family and plays an important social and economic role. Over time, pastoralists developed an intrinsic knowledge on camel production and transferred this knowledge from generation to generation. Both extensive and intensive camel management systems exist. Religion is central to pastoral camel production. The paper describes the gender-based division of labour in camel management and discusses the effectiveness, sustainability and sociocultural acceptability of the local system. In all camel-rearing villages, a strong reliance of pastoralists on traditional healthcare practices in preventing and treating diseases and injuries is visible. Local medicines are limited nearly entirely to the locally available flora. Indian camel keepers have extensive knowledge of pharmacology and ethnobotany. They have formulated balanced feeding systems and identified plants which can detoxify various actions of biting insects or have galactogogue, antibacterial, and fungal properties. Crude surgery is also practised to treat abscesses, wounds, and fractures or solve obstetric problems. To sum up, the spectrum of ethnoveterinary medicine in drylands is wide. It is necessary to initiate a detailed research program to study the efficacy of local practices and herbal treatments and inventory them.
Key words: arid zone; pastoralists; camel; ethnoveterinary medicine; animal husbandry; local practices; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Wilson M. Kisamo
For centuries, ethnic groups all over the world have engaged in livestock farming. Every group has its own mode of traditional stock-raising and husbandry practices. The author is afraid that, in the long run, the knowledge possessed by ethnic societies concerning livestock practices may be disowned due to a number of unfavourable factors, that are currently quite eminent. In order to sustain the knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicine, bioprospecting and conservation of the useful traditional medicinal plants is imperative. The annotated factors in the paper need consideration in order to ward off the risks of discarding the useful knowledge.
Key words: medicinal plants; livestock; ethnoveterinary medicine.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
To identify indigenous technologies for health coverage in sheep, 10 villages in each of the districts Jaipur, Ajmer, and Tonk were selected in Rajasthan. In each village, five sheep farmers were interviewed. The 150 interviews yielded 189 indigenous technologies and practices. The percentages of farmers practising each technology were calculated. Twenty-five scientists were asked to rate the technologies for scientific relevance. On the resulting scale, the minimum possible score of 0 = irrelevant and the maximum score of 1 = relevant.
Out of 189 technologies, 71 were practised by more than 50% of the 150 sheep rearers. This indicates that the sheep rearers have a lot of faith in the technologies they have practised over the years. For 27 of the technologies, the scientific relevance score was greater than 0.5, indicating a sound scientific basis for these technologies. Here are a few examples for indigenous treatments, the percentage of farmers using them, and their relevance score (Pi):
- Inducing heat in sheep with sesame oil (45% of farmers, Pi=0.38).
- Treating retention of placenta with a boiled mixture of ber bush, milk, and gur (87%, Pi=0.5).
- Controlling diarrhoea with barley flour mixed in rice starch (73%, Pi=0.54).
- Curing jaundice through tying a talisman to the sheep (78%, Pi=0).
- Curing mastitis through putting dry red chillies in the chullah (fire) after passing them over the sheep (51%, Pi=0.02).
- Combating indigestion with castor oil (76%, Pi=0.70).
- Treating enterotoxaemia through cutting the ear and tail of the affected sheep (92%, Pi=0.14).
- Curing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) through burning pig excreta in the sheep paddock (58%, Pi=0.16).
- Treating itching through rubbing a paste of gandraph, salt, and oil on the skin (17%, Pi=0.64).
Key words: field research; ethnoveterinary medicine; sheep diseases; indigenous technologies; scientific validation; Rajasthan, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Dinesh Kumar, H.C. Tripathi, S. Chandra, S.K. Tandan, and J. Lal
Rural people in India and Nepal use Dalbergia sissoo leaves to treat animals suffering from non-specific diarrhoea. This study verified this claim experimentally. Alcoholic extract was prepared from mature leaves of D. sissoo and tested on the isometrically mounted isolated rabbit ileum. Alcohol (40%) and tannic acid (1%) served as controls because the leaves were extracted in alcohol and they contained a good amount of tannic acid.
The extract caused dose-dependent (30 to 100 m g/ml) reduction in the amplitude of rhythmic contractions of the intestine (ED50 73.1 ± 10.6 m g/ml of batch solution). At 300 m g/ml and above, the extract inhibited pendular movements of the intestine within five minutes. The effect persisted until the tissue was washed two to three times, whereupon the rhythmic motility revived slowly and completely within15-30 minutes. A similar effect was observed with the extract from fresh macerated D. sissoo leaves, while both controls did not induce any observable change in the rhythmic motility of the ileum. To further investigate the possible inhibitory mechanism, various spasmogens such as acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, and barium chloride (BaCl2) were administered to the batch in the absence and presence of alcoholic extract of D. sissoo leaves. Exposure of the tissue to 300 m g/ml of extract for 10 minutes caused 71.0 ± 4.7%, 69.0 ± 6.0%, and 82.0 ± 3.4% reduction in the contractile responses induced by submaximal concentrations of ACh (10-7M), histamine (10-5M), and BaCl2 (10-4M), respectively. These observations indicate that the effectiveness of D. sissoo leaves in non-specific diarrhoea in animals could be due to the non-specific spasmolytic effect of the leaves.
Key words: laboratory research; pharmacology; Dalbergia sissoo leaves; diarrhoea; spasmolytic effect.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Jawahar Lal, Suresh Chandra, S. Gupta, and S.K. Tandan
Tinospora cordifolia is a large climber, found in tropical regions. The Ayurvedic medical system ascribes valuable medicinal properties to this plant. The stem has been reported to possess expectorant, antipyretic, antidiabetic, and blood-purifying activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticonvulsant effects of alcoholic extract of the stem of T. cordifolia, employing oral doses of 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was studied in carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema in rats and compared with aspirin. The results indicated that the extract did not have anti-inflammatory activity. Its analgesic activity was tested by Randall- Selitto assay in rats, acetic acid-induced writhing in female mice, and tail clip and hot plate tests in mice. During the Randall-Selitto assay, the extract produced significant analgesic activity. The acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice suggested peripheral analgesic activity. However, no central analgesic effect could be recorded during tail clip and hot plate tests in mice. The extract was also devoid of anticonvulsant activity during maximum electroshock and chemoshock tests in mice. This study confirms the medicinal value of the stem of T. cordifolia for pains due to inflammation.
Key words: laboratory research; pharmacology; Tinospora cordifolia leaves; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; anticonvulsant; mice.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Practising veterinary medicine is often an art as much as it is a science. In developing countries where owners may not necessarily have the willingness to return many times for any ongoing therapy involving medicines and laboratory testing, it is often desirable to devise methods where in one visit as much as possible may be accomplished for the benefit of the patient. When medicines and laboratory testing are not readily available, it falls upon the practitioner to take responsibility for rendering the best possible veterinary care within the limits of his/her clinical experience, based solely upon the physical examination and history. Cases may be presented to the veterinary doctor which require conventional western medical approaches, e.g., antibiotics, surgery, but then at the same time use of traditional Chinese medicine may speed up the recovery. Younger patients commonly respond to herbal tonics to boost their immune systems (e.g., upper respiratory infections in young cats), and older patients respond to acupuncture after surgery to enable them to be ambulatory more quickly (e.g., ruptured anterior cruciate repair). The application of differing modalities in treatment of the patient can be mutually compatible and beneficial for the patient. Results are often seen more rapidly, and client, patient, and doctor therefore successfully achieve their goals and purposes.
Key words: small animal practice; acupuncture; traditional Chinese medicine; China.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
J.K. Malik, V. Raviparakash, and A. Ahmad
Traditional medicines occupy an important place among the remedies employed to treat different ailments of livestock in India. The wealth of knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) was originally confined to a few individuals and transferred from generation to generation, mainly as a family tradition. Subsequently, researchers started compiling information on EVM which was often difficult to access. The compilations served merely as a source of information but had no authenticity and scientific testimony about the claims attributed to the various materials. Later, these materials were scientifically investigated, based on modern pharmacological evaluation procedures. Recently, there has been worldwide an increasing interest in the research and development of ethnoveterinary pharmacology, especially on scientific validation of ethnobotanicals. A large number of native medicinal plants have been screened for various pharmacological properties, mainly to develop products for human diseases. In general, the application and scientific evaluation of ethnobotanicals for the control and treatment of livestock diseases has received minimal attention. Nevertheless, the research on age-old ethnobotanical remedies has paved the way for the development of a number of preparations for treating various disease conditions in domestic animals and enhancing their productive potential. Drug formulations have been developed against ectoparasites and worms, for wound healing, with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, for treating reproductive, gastro-intestinal, urinary tract, and respiratory disorders, and to enhance milk and egg production. The outcome are traditional remedies that are easily accessible and cost-effective and have improved therapeutic efficacy.
The scope of ethnopharmacology for enhancing the health and production of Indian livestock is very bright. However, concerted efforts are needed with a multifaceted approach involving traditional physicians, medical chemists, veterinary pharmacologists and clinicians, and veterinary pharmaceutical industries. Efforts should also be directed towards quality control and standardisation of herbal pharmaceuticals.
Key words: ethnoveterinary pharmacology; validation of ethnobotanicals; drug formulations; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
This paper reviews the results of studies on Himax, a commercial herbal ointment. It contains Sida veronicaefolia, Tagetes erecta, Berberis aristata, and oleum picis liquidae. In vitro-studies revealed the efficacy of Himax against pathogenic species of bacteria like Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas and of fungi like Trichophyton and Microsporum. The therapeutic efficacy of Himax in different species of domestic animals was evaluated in around 1800 clinical dermatological conditions caused by pathogenic species of bacteria, fungi, mites, and virus or by trauma and other non-specific causes. Himax proved highly efficacious in bringing about a complete cure in all these cases. Histological and biochemical studies on Himax regarding its influence on wound healing revealed fast and excessive deposition of granulated tissue with high concentrations of hexosamine and hydroxyproline, increased mitotic activity, early wound contraction, and re-epithilisation. The review confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of this herbal preparation in treating various dermatological conditions of domestic animals.
Keywords: Himax; domestic animals; dermatological conditions; wounds.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
There are various methods employed by researchers for the collection and dissemination of ethnoveterinary information. These methods are adapted from the sciences and the social sciences to suit the needs of the particular angle of research being undertaken. Anthropologists, agriculturalists, veterinarians, extension workers, and others generally record information based on observations and interviews. They collect data from written and oral questionnaire surveys, ethnoveterinary question lists, and use participatory appraisal tools.
It is the potential of participatory appraisal for both the dissemination and the collection of ethnoveterinary data that is the focus of this paper and workshop. The aim is to provide conference participants with participatory appraisal tools to both aid them with their ethnoveterinary work and to empower their informants. These tools are suitable for people everywhere, literate, illiterate, rural, urban, male, female, old, and young. The tools presented in this paper/workshop include mapping, matrices, role playing, calendars, and ranking exercises.
During the conference workshop, delegates were asked to participate in a drawing exercise. They drew the form of an animal that they had recently been in contact with, its ailments, and the mode of treatment they used. They were then asked to share their drawing with their neighbour. This exercise demonstrated the strength drawing has for stimulating discussion and participation.
Key words: collection of information; participatory appraisal; research methods; dissemination of information; empowerment.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Evelyn Mathias and Raul Perezgrovas
Indigenous livestock management and health care (ethnoveterinary medicine) offers great potential for development. Some indigenous approaches and technologies are cheaper, more appropriate, and more readily available than technologies and services brought in from outside. Other indigenous practices could be improved or blended with outside know-how and thus contribute to the development of locally-based, sustainable solutions. Still, livestock development programmes and projects have been slow in integrating ethnoveterinary information and practices.
This paper discusses where ethnoveterinary medicine is actually used, how widespread this use is, who is involved in ethnoveterinary research and development (ER&D), what factors determine the extent of use, and which problems need to be overcome so as to facilitate ER&D. Because of the scarcity of written information on these questions, many points should be treated as hypotheses that need to be verified.
The field application of ethnoveterinary medicine in development efforts seems to be rather limited. Research projects by far outweigh the number of development activities promoting or building on selected indigenous practices. Besides, research and application are often separated from each other. This has two drawbacks: research recommendations are seldom implemented, and results from field application are not documented, causing valuable information on efficacy and possible problems to be lost.
The different groups involved in ER&D are: farmers; health care-providers such as extension services, development projects, and private practitioners; staff involved in training courses, colleges, and universities; and government officials, decision-makers, and development planners. The paper discusses factors influencing the use of ER&D by each group. These include remoteness of a project's location; the community's way of life (e.g., settled or nomadic); environmental conditions; the availability of alternatives; characteristics of the local versus introduced systems in terms of efficacy, costs, availability, and cultural feasibility; economic value and purpose of the animals kept and the relationship between humans and animals; available information on proven effective indigenous drugs and practices; incentives to promote local practices rather than ready-made approaches; status thinking; and recognition of the value of ethnoveterinary medicine.
The application of ethnoveterinary medicine requires the compilation of packages of proven ethnoveterinary practices and remedies that can be integrated into veterinary practice and services; development of methodologies and approaches to document, select and use ethnoveterinary practices at the field level; links among research, education, and extension; and efforts to convince key players in livestock development of the value of ethnoveterinary medicine.
Key words: application of ethnoveterinary medicine; livestock development.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Paul Mundy and Evelyn Mathias
This paper describes a process to document, validate, and publish ethnoveterinary medicine in the form of a manual that field workers can use. This process has been used to produce manuals on ethnoveterinary medicine in Asia and in Kenya, as well as information materials on other topics ranging from biodiversity to technologies for women. The process brings together indigenous livestock healers, scientists, NGO staff, and extension staff to present, discuss, and revise manuscripts on specific livestock diseases or problems. A team of editors, artists, and computer personnel assist the workshop participants to revise, illustrate, and desktop-publish the manuscripts.
This method provides an opportunity for scientists to validate ethnoveterinary practices, since they are able to discuss details of each practice with the indigenous specialists using it, compare it with standard veterinary methods, and judge its applicability and effectiveness. It also is an excellent method of linking research, extension, and field levels: scientists learn of indigenous techniques and can plan clinical trials or other forms of research on them; and scientific knowledge is translated into a form that extensionists and livestock holders can use. The method is also a very fast way of generating and publishing information: by the end of a two-week workshop, near-camera-ready material for a 200-page manual can be ready.
The method can also be adapted for use at the field level: in Kenya, a group of Luo practitioners are developing an ethnoveterinary manual for Luoland. A group of villagers in Negros, the Philippines, used a similar approach to produce a manual on forest conservation.
Similar manuals on topics such as sustainable agriculture and upland natural resource management have been adapted and translated in various languages in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Pacific.
Key words: participatory workshops; ethnoveterinary medicine; research-extension linkages; documentation; validation; Kenya; Asia.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Animal agriculture in India is an age-old avocation. From the Emperor Ashoka period around 300 BC, veterinary practice existed in India. It evolved through constant observation of animals, understanding of day-to-day behavioural patterns, trial and error, and refining the techniques based on the experiences made during application. These experiences have been handed down from one generation to the other and many of the practices are time-tested, environment-friendly, cost-effective, readily available, and location-specific.
Lately, interest has been generated in understanding such indigenous technical knowledge and "farmers' wisdom" because some indigenous technologies could be utilised in animal healthcare. For example, neem leaves, jaggery, and areca nut have been found effective in controlling worm infestation. Other promising ethnoveterinary remedies include camphor, turmeric, egg white, pepper, lemon, and ginger. They are widely used for various ailments in animals ranging from wounds, sprains, fractures, and stomach aches to intestinal disorders. To preserve this knowledge and test the usefulness of indigenous technologies and systems in the present-day scenario, an understanding of the various practices is necessary. There is ample scope for their further improvement by research and development.
Key words: ethnoveterinary practices; medicinal plants.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
B.K. Narainswami, C. Resmy, and N.K. Kulkarni
Ethnoveterinary medicine provides low-cost alternatives in situations where expensive western-type drugs and veterinary services are not available. For lack of effective communication many ethnoveterinary practices are not reaching the targeted livestock farmers. Effective communication is necessary for the promotion of ethnoveterinary medicine. Good communication should consist of creating understanding, imparting knowledge, and helping people to gain a clear view. To become effective communicators, it is the responsibility of those involved in ethnoveterinary promotional activities to familiarise themselves with the seven 'Cs' for effective communication:
Credibility: there must be a climate of belief, earnest desire.
Context: the situation must allow participation and feedback.
Content: the content must have meaning for the livestock farmer.
Clarity: the message must be clear and simple; words must mean the same thing to the livestock farmer as they do to the promoter of ethnoveterinary medicine.
Channels: established channels of communication respected by livestock farmers must be used.
Consistency: communication is an unending process. It requires repetition to achieve penetration. It should be consistent.
Capability: this refers to availability, habit, reading, ability, and livestock farmers' knowledge.
Much misunderstanding results from faulty communication. Too many people saying the wrong thing at the wrong time, in the wrong way, to the wrong people, slows progress. What is needed is more people saying right things, at the right time, in the right ways to the right people. This is a formula for good and effective communication. The promoter of ethnoveterinary medicine is actually a motivator and needs devotion and full identification with farmers, both pre-requisites for success. Farmers' confidence can be achieved by careful and gradual introduction of fully approved ethnoveterinary practices. Co-operation with researchers is essential for current updating of the promoter on the one hand and for the conveyance of the real problems from the field to research on the other hand.
Key words: communication; research-extension linkage; promotion of ethnoveterinary medicine.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
India has a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary medicine but it is not used properly in development. In India, the following factors contributed to the low status of ethnoveterinary medicine in the eyes of veterinarians and livestock owners: non-availability of standardised ethnoveterinary practice; inconvenience of preparation and use; seasonal availability of certain medicinal plants; paucity of treatments against infectious epidemic and systemic diseases; vagueness of treatment schedules; lack of studies on the economic viability; and inadequate attention of the government. In the present setting, the use of western-type veterinary medicine resulted in the resurgence of some diseases, high costs of drugs and supplies, difficulty in identifying the components responsible for toxic effects, poor communication facilities and modern amenities, and lack of veterinary staff at the local level. This altogether created a need for ethnoveterinary medicine. Hence, traditional and local practices used for animal health care and sustainable animal production should be systematically explored.
Presently, veterinary research and extension workers are loosing credibility among farming communities because information from formal research has limited practical use, as technology development seeks to serve target requirements. There is a need to integrate ethnoveterinary medicine with formal research. Before designing a strategy, it is desirable to know the setting in which it is expected to operate and the real economic gain for livestock farmers compared to the use of western drugs. This paper recommends one to
- Analyse the situation, identify problems, find solutions, decide objectives and a plan of work, and execute the plan.
- Evaluate the effectiveness to standardise ethnoveterinary practice. Compare the efficacy of standardised practices with western systems of medicine and advocate proven practices.
- To change knowledge, skill, attitude, and overall behaviour of veterinarians, integrate proven standardised ethnoveterinary practices into veterinary education curricula at college and university levels.
- For the development of ethnoveterinary medicine, employ skilled farmers and veterinary healers as paraveterinarians, train them in proven standardised ethnoveterinary medicine, and use them for extension work.
- To promote ethnoveterinary practices, use individual group and mass contact methods including campaigns to educate all concerned with the help of audiovisual aids and demonstrations with effective communication.
How to motivate livestock farmers for adoption of ethnoveterinary practices? Answering this question is difficult. Management services to livestock farmers for adoption of ethnoveterinary practice is an emerging concept cited in the recent literature. It refers to the degree to which farmers obtain operational assistance required for adoption of ethnoveterinary practices such as technical advice, inputs for medicine preparation, credit, marketing services, livestock insurance, specialised services, and subsidies for different ethnoveterinary programmes at local level.
Key words: promotion of ethnoveterinary medicine; disadvantages of ethnoveterinary medicine; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Conventional drugs are costly and many have side effects. The build-up of bacterial resistance due to the frequent and often indiscriminate use of antibiotics in animals poses a danger to people, animals, and the environment. Homeopathic medicine has the objective to promote health and increase resistance to disease in order to enhance production. In veterinary medicine, homeopathy was introduced by Dr. Johann Wilhelm Lux, a graduate of the Civil Veterinary School, Berlin, Germany. In 1833, Dr. Lux published his results in a small pamphlet entitled Isopathik der Contagionen or All the diseases carry in them the means of their cure. Dr. Lux also started a periodical on veterinary homeopathy entitled Zooaiasis.
In animals, homeopathy has been successfully employed for both prevention and treatment. Examples are the prevention of anthrax in sheep and goats, and pox in cattle, sheep, and goats. With regard to treatment, homeopathic approaches are most effective in diseases commonly encountered in clinical practice such as mastitis, summer diarrhoea, three-day fever, bloat, contagious ecthyma, burns, injuries, and fractures.
Nearly two decades ago, the Sheep Breeding Farm controlled by Maharashtra Sheep & Goat Development Corporation Ltd., Maharashtra State, conducted homeopathic trials. The results of these trials have been published elsewhere. This paper intends to record the application of Dr. Lux's veterinary homeopathy for curing diseases in livestock in general, and in sheep and goat particular.
Key words: homeopathy; sheep; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Traditional (indigenous) knowledge, under the dominant influence of western science, has been given little importance in the past. However, a large number of livestock keepers, especially in the tropics, still depend on traditional knowledge and therapies for the healthcare of their animals. Indigenous methods are often cheap, sustainable, and free from side effects.
A survey conducted among 150 farmers and 18 traditional healers in Kerala to ascertain the level of use of ethnoveterinary practices showed that nearly 75% of farmers used traditional methods to treat their animals. Mastitis, fever, bloat, diarrhoea, helminthiasis, and foot-and-mouth disease were the main diseases treated by the farmers and traditional healers. Substances used for treatment included spices such as pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa), garlic (Allium sativum), and preparations from neem (Azadirachta indica) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica).
Although local knowledge has its limitations, there is tremendous scope for its use in interventions. A revival of traditional knowledge and ancient practices and a suitable blending of these with western therapies could help achieve better results.
Key words: field research; medicinal plants; ethnoveterinary medicine; traditional healers; Kerala, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Intensive management, high animal density, and high production of milk, meat, or eggs have lead to a renewed interest in "stress". Stress is a very common but unnoticed problem in the livestock industry. Stressors significantly increase the plasma corticosteroid level resulting in excess protein catabolism. This causes a drop in production, poor feed conversion, and immunosuppression. Administration of Zeetress (a commercial polyherbal formulation) regularises the plasma corticosteroid level and hence prevents excessive protein catabolism. It thereby improves conversion, production, and livelihood. Zeetress also minimises the stress-induced depletion of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and stimulates the humoral as well as the cell-mediated immune response.
In the present scenario of the livestock industry, it is very difficult to avoid stress. Therefore, administration of Zeetress is proven to be beneficial to avoid stress-related ill-health.
Keywords: herbal medicine; Zeetress; stress.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
S.N. Pandey, M. Sabir, and A.K. Srivastava
In India, a number of medicinal plants has been used in earlier days to treat reproductive disorders of domestic animals. A few examples of plants which have been applied as uterotonics in domestic animals are Adhatoda vasica, Gardenia gumnifera, Leptadenia reticulata, Plumbago zeylanica, and Viburnum stellulatum. Due to the adoption of western-style veterinary medicine, the use of such ethnobotanical remedies has declined dramatically. This study has evaluated different pharmacological parameters of these plants with special reference to their uterotonic activity, in order to find out the pharmacological basis of certain therapeutic actions of these plants.
On chemical examination, A. vasica was found to contain alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic components, and sterols; G. gumnifera contained glycosides, phenolic compounds, and amines; L. reticulata contained alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, and sterols; and V. stellulatum contained alkaloids, glycosides, amines, and sterols. These five plants produced varying degrees of analgesic, hypnotic, and hypotensive effects in dogs and rats. A. vasica increased both the rate and amplitude of respiration. The other plants produced a mild inhibitory effect on respiration. None of these plants had any effect on the nictitating membrane. On the isolated uterus of rat, collected during the metoestrus phase of the oestrous cycle, A. vasica had a mild stimulatory effect and on the uterus collected during the oestrus phase, it induced marked rhythmicity. On the isolated full-term gravid uterus of rats, A. vasica, P. zeylanica, and L. reticulata markedly increased the tone of spontaneously motile tissue. However, G. gumnifera and V. stellulatum had no marked effects. In addition to these, other important pharmacological and therapeutic actions of these plants were also investigated.
Key words: laboratory research; medicinal plants; uterotonics; Adhatoda vasica; Gardenia gumnifera; Leptadenia reticulata; Plumbago zeylanica; Viburnum stellulatum; rat; dog.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
P.R. Patel, C.B. Prajapati, M.T. Panchal, and J.J. Hasnani
Mange is the second most important health problem of rural camels. Predisposing factors are poor husbandry, overcrowding, malnutrition, fatigue, long hair coat, lack of green fodder in the diet, and worm infestation.
A total of 702 skin scrapings from 269 camels in rural India were examined for mange. About 27% of the animals were infected with Sarcoptes scabiei.
For the treatment of the mange, camel owners commonly apply castor oil, karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil or burnt engine oil. The remedies are applied on the skin lesions once or twice a week for about three to four months. Improvement is usually observed after three to four months. The efficacy of the remedies is probably due to the fact that the oils are viscous and prevent the migration of the larvae of Sarcoptes, thus interrupting the life cycle of the parasite.
Key words: clinical study; Sarcoptes scabiei; castor oil; karanja oil; Pongamia glabra; burnt engine oil; camels; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
In the Highlands of Chiapas (Mexico), Tzotzil Indians of Mayan origin raise sheep as one of their subsistence strategies. Through sheep husbandry and wool processing, women generate up to 36% of the annual income.
The sheep are sacred animals among the Tzotzils, and only women are responsible for the family flock; the animals are never killed or eaten, and thus wool becomes the most important productive aspect. Their management is simple but efficient, designed to maintain the animals healthy and productive; herbs and plants are used to treat some diseases of sheep, and other illnesses are prevented through caring for the animals and flock management.
Worldwide, a large amount of ethnoveterinary work is related to the indigenous knowledge developed to maintain or improve animal health. A great body of traditional knowledge, however, has to do with other aspects of animal husbandry and production, and we need to dedicate time and effort to gather, register, and validate such important information.
In our recent work, we studied wool production and the traditional knowledge of Tzotzil shepherdesses regarding the selection of animals for the quality of their fleeces, in an attempt to blend the indigenous knowledge into adequate genetic improvement programmes.
Participatory research with Tzotzil shepherdesses ranked their selection critieria primarily with wool characteristics (combination of short and long fibres, shape and length of wool locks, absence of kemp), and secondly with the quality of the fleece (softness, appropriate growth for shearing, colour, and lustre). These parameters are the result of intense every-day use of wool and centuries-long careful observation of flocks.
The fleece of Chiapas sheep has a primary coat of long coarse fibres and an undercoat of short, finer fibres. This combination of fibres gives the fleece of Chiapas sheep its extraordinary appropriateness for manual spinning and weaving. Tzotzil artisans make excellent use of the different proportions of coarse and fine fibres in the fleeces of their sheep to prepare the two kind of threads required for back-strap loom weaving. Research is under way to correlate the characteristics found in the "good" fleeces selected by Indian women, with a quantitative proportion of long:short fibres ranging from1:2 to 1:5.
Likewise, empirical estimation of fibre length by shepherdesses using hand and finger measurements is being correlated with numerical values, to establish objective selection criteria, while softness of the fleece can be correlated to diameter of the different fibres and the amount of kemp.
Presently, grading of fleece quality by shepherdesses is assigned a gross numerical equivalent from 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent), as part of the genetic improvement programme. Statistical analysis will establish which objective parameters derived from the shepherdesses expertise can be best used to develop appropriate selection indexes for better quality of wool and fleece in Chiapas sheep.
Key words: Chiapas sheep; wool production; indigenous knowledge; selection criteria; Tzotzil Indians; Mexico.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Raul Perezgrovas and Norma Farrera
In the Highlands of Chiapas, ethnoveterinary studies among Tzotzil shepherdesses have helped to launch a research programme on genetic improvement of the local sheep: what women know about their woollen souls is now the framework of an academic effort to obtain animals that produce heavier fleeces of higher quality wool. An important part of this effort will be the introduction of superior sheep into the village flocks.
Previous experiences with government extension workers showed that they lacked understanding of the Tzotzil culture and sheep husbandry systems. They used male-oriented western extension schemes that proved to be useless in the Tzotzil villages where sheep are sacred animals cared for exclusively by women within a strong cultural background.
Following our ethnoveterinary approach, we conducted participatory research among Tzotzil shepherdesses to gather, register, and validate their traditional knowledge on sheep exchange. This was to provide a framework in the design of a sustainable extension programme based on the introduction of superior animals from the experimental farm of the University of Chiapas.
Individual and group interviews with Tzotzil women resulted in the description of a series of traditional mechanisms used by Indian shepherdesses to obtain and exchange animals among themselves. Most women (41%) preferred the lending of rams for short periods ranging from 2 to 45 days. A second mechanism (31%) was the direct purchase of animals, mainly young ewes, followed by the trading of sheep (16%) for clothes or agricultural products like maize and beans. Only 12% of women were prone to use the government-recommended system of animals in long-term loan with sharecropping of lambs.
These results were presented to and discussed with a small group of respected Tzotzil shepherdesses from three municipalities in the areas, to design with them the basis for an "ideal" extension programme. In brief, superior rams chosen by the shepherdesses would be lent during the summer (oestrous season) while the local ram is separated from the flock. The shepherdess also had the option to buy the chosen ram. Superior animals from the experimental farm would also be for sale, with the option for monthly payments; women would chose sex, age, and phenotype of the desired sheep.
Another mechanism for the shepherdess would be the trading of animals in her flock for a superior sheep from the experimental farm. She would decide which of her animals to trade in and there is an option for her to give other animals (poultry, pigs) or clothes or agricultural products, using a table of equivalencies. Women interested in long-term loan of animals could receive a ram and 3-5 ewes during three years with sharecropping of lambs.
These are just general guidelines of an appropriate extension programme based on superior Chiapas sheep introduced into Tzotzil village flocks. Experimental introduction of superior animals into 10 different village flocks by lending of rams during a three-month period showed good adaptation of sheep and adequate social responses from the shepherdesses and their neighbours. An extension programme derived form indigenous knowledge and designed with the Tzotzil shepherdesses themselves, promises to be socially acceptable, culturally adequate, and productively successful.
Key words: Chiapas sheep; participatory research; exchange of animals; appropriate extension; Tzotzil Indians; Mexico.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
The importance of plant-derived medicines in modern medicine is often underestimated. Useful compounds from plants such as digoxin, morphine, atropine, taxol, vincristine, and colchicine - to name a few - present a broad and representative range of pharmacological activities. Over centuries the human race has developed numerous technologies and acquired tremendous knowledge from Mother Nature. Experimentation and exploration of medicinal properties of plants has created a treasure of knowledge in different cultures and civilisations. In India, history of herbal veterinary medicines dates back to the Mahabharata (5000 BC), recorded in the form of Nakul Samhitas. Herbal medicines have been and are still used by different societies throughout the world for animal healthcare. These herbal medicines have a long record of safety, besides being effective and economical. Herbal veterinary medicines developed on the basis of traditional knowledge are subjected to extensive research, using modern scientific techniques, to establish their safety and clinical efficacy. Such standardised herbal medicines of predictable and dependable therapeutic efficacy are being produced following good manufacturing practices and total quality management guidelines.
Key words: herbal medicine; research; drug standardisation; quality testing.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
While studying women's involvement in livestock production in parts of western India, studies were undertaken to understand knowledge, aptitude, and practices (KAP) related to ethnoveterinary practices for livestock health management. The studies were conducted in parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh states. Variations in ethnoveterinary practices and knowledge due to regions and social groups were determined and indirectly validated. The studies involved pastoralist, tribal, and farmer families. Results indicate that most women, irrespective of the region or community to which they belonged, had some knowledge of traditional treatment methods and used them for their livestock. Tribal women had more knowledge about medicinal plants than women in other groups.
Most women consulted local healers before approaching veterinarians, except those living near a city or veterinary dispensary. The reasons indicated by women for this ranged from cost factors to long term association, personal relationships, credibility, confidence, and easy accessibility to the local healers. Most local healers were men, although some women had good knowledge of traditional treatments.
Indirect validation of claims regarding the effectiveness of traditional medicine was undertaken using a combination of approaches. The treatments used extensively and claimed as effective by many farmer men and women, extension officers, and veterinarians were short-listed. Ayurvedic books were referred to for information and were found to provide information on various aspects of most of the medicinal plants and about treatment methods.
The ailments most commonly and effectively treated were ecto- and endoparasites, cuts, wounds, burns, maggot-infested wounds, bleeding, inflammatory conditions, abscesses, subclinical mastitis, and blood in milk. The paper describes details of the treatments. Many flowering and fruit plants were reported effective against most of the above referred ailments. Examples are the leaves and flowers of flowering plants like jasmine species and fruit plants like Annona squamosa and Punica granatum. These plants are available around houses and thus within easy reach of women. Tinospora cordifolia, a creeper, is used for controlling disease outbreaks in poultry. Information on antiviral or antibacterial properties of some of these plants is lacking or at least not commonly known, but nevertheless the plants are reported to control the severity of diseases and hasten recovery. Standardisation of treatments is necessary.
While most veterinarians are aware of traditional treatment methods, they are hesitant to adopt them. Fresh graduates were found to have no knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices. Women and local healers do not have sufficient knowledge and confidence on the use of vaccines. Involving women in field trials for validation of claims and standardisation of treatments would be very useful. Training and orientation programmes and encouraging the involvement of women and local healers are strongly recommended. Efforts are needed to remove the apathy towards traditional systems and indigenous knowledge.
Key words: field research; women; traditional healers; medicinal plants; traditional medicine; Ayurveda; western India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
G.S. Rao, Jawahar Lal, S. Chandra, and J.K. Malik
Stock raisers apply a number of medicinal plants in the treatment of respiratory diseases of their livestock. Little is known about the effects of ethnobotanicals on the smooth muscles of the air way of ruminants. The present in-vitro study was undertaken to investigate the effects of five different plant extracts on the air way tone of the goat. The extracts tested were alcoholic extracts of Piper nigrum fruits, Allium sativum bulbs, and Syzygium aromaticum buds, and essential oils of Eucalyptus leaves and Cedrus deodara wood. Tracheae were collected from freshly slaughtered goats at the local abattoir. The specimen was chilled in Kreb's-Henseleit solution. Smooth muscle strips of 3-4 cm were dissected from the mid part of the trachea and mounted in an organ bath (20 ml) containing Kreb's-Henseleit solution (37 ± 0.5oC), continuously bubbled with air. The tissues were allowed to equilibrate for one hour under a constant tension of 1 g. Responses were recorded by a force displacement transducer, connected to an ink writing oscillograph. The relaxant effect of various extracts was seen on the pre-contracted tissues with histamine (10-5M) and carbachol (10-8M). Alcoholic extract of S. aromaticum buds (1 mg/ml) completely relaxed both histamine and carbachol-induced contractile responses while the other extracts and the essential oils did not alter the above responses. In order to further confirm the effect of alcoholic extract of S. aromaticum buds, the tissues were pre-treated with the extract (1 mg/ml) for 15 minutes before exposing them to histamine and carbachol. The extract completely blocked the contractile responses to both agonists and this effect was found to be reversible. The study reveals that the alcoholic extract of S. aromaticum buds produce relaxation of induced contractions of the smooth muscle of the goat trachea.
Key words: laboratory research; Allium sativum; Cedrus deodara; Eucalyptus; Piper nigrum; Syzygium aromaticum; tracheal muscles; goat.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
H.S. Rathore, S.S. Rathore, and Ilse Köhler-Rollefson
Godwara, located in south-central Rajasthan, is an area rich in livestock. Domestic animals include sheep, goats, and camels kept by traditional pastoral communities (Raika); cows and buffaloes raised by land-owning castes (Rajput, Jat); and donkeys owned by scheduled castes and backward classes (Kumhars, Kalbelia, Bhat). Although there is an extensive network of government animal hospitals, the rural communities rarely make use of them. A variety of alternative options, i.e., animal health delivery systems exist, including self-treatment, consultation of a traditional healer, or visit to a spirit medium (bhopa). A study conducted by Lokhit Pashu-Palak Sansthan provided information about local disease concepts and treatments, including herbal preparations, surgical techniques, and firing. It also furnished insights into the factors determining the choice of animal health provider by the livestock owners. Pastoral nomadic groups are most likely to resort to self-treatment, whereas village-based people usually seek the advice of a local healer; if this fails, they will approach a bhopa. Without prolonged comparative studies, only tentative conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of traditional versus conventional treatments. However, certain camel diseases that resisted conventional therapies seemingly responded to firing with a hot iron (dam dena); these included vadi (rheumatism, wry-neck syndrome) and khuraq (broncho-pneumonia).
Key words: pastoralists; camels; ethnoveterinary medicine; choice of healthcare; Rajasthan, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
S.K. Raval, R.G. Jani, and P.R. Patel
In livestock industries, mastitis and milk abnormalities curb profit and result in economic losses. This study discusses the efficacy of camphor (camphora officinarum) in buffaloes having blood-tinged milk. Camphor contains volatile acid which has a styptic action. In villages nearby Anand, 21 buffaloes with clinical cases of blood-tinged or bloody milk received camphor in banana orally at a dose of two tablets twice a day. Before and after the camphor therapy, milk samples of these animals were tested for the presence of blood, clinically as well as for occult blood with a strip cup and benzidine tests in the laboratory. Affected animals recovered within three to five days. Treatment costs per animal were calculated and the cost:benefit ratio for camphor was compared with that of other drugs. The findings suggest that in cases of blood in milk, camphor is cheap and easily available.
Key words: clinical study; buffalo; blood in milk; camphor; Gujarat, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
D. Ravindra and K.R. Rao
Inspite of relentless efforts for the last 50 years by the Government of India, the status of the country's veterinary healthcare infrastructure is far from satisfactory when compared with world standards. The vast livestock resources play a pivotal role in providing employment to small and marginal farmers and the country has emerged as the world's largest milk producer and 19th in broiler production. Indian veterinary infrastructure comprises of both traditional and modern veterinary medicine. Traditional veterinary treatments are documented in Sanskrit as well as in vernacular scriptures. There is a vast network of modern veterinary medicine with 40,093 veterinary institutions catering for the healthcare requirements of 305,162 million adult units (1993-94). Thus, there is one veterinary institution for every 7,611 adult units, against the recommendation of the National Commission on Agriculture to have one veterinary institution for 500 adult units by the year 2000. Therefore, ethnoveterinary medicine can play a very effective role in bridging the gap between supply and demand in institutions and infrastructure, especially in states like Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli, where the gap is more than 50%. Ethnoveterinary medicine can also play a crucial role in supplementing the efforts of existing manpower as there is a gap in supply and demand of veterinarians to the tune of 28,400. The gap in the supply of veterinary healthcare products (1994-95) was estimated to be in the range of Rs.682 crores to Rs.944 crores (about 200 to 275 millions US$) when assuming 2% and 2.5% of value of livestock products respectively as expenditures on veterinary medicines. The above analysis of the gaps has to be considered together with the financial implications in bridging such gaps, i.e., the cost of establishing each veterinary institution, the cost of training a veterinary doctor, and also the capital outlay needed for building the infrastructure for veterinary healthcare products. One can conclude that the Indian rural livestock population is a boon for ethnoveterinary practitioners. The strategies and approaches needed for exploiting the existing potentials of ethnoveterinary medicine are:
- Creation of an organisational structure like a central policy body and regional work stations.
- Identification of measures to exploit the existing potentials regarding standardisation of practices and identification of critical states and extension networks.
- Development of a data base on livestock population, veterinary infrastructure, and quantification of infrastructure.
Key words: ethnoveterinary medicine; veterinary services; veterinary infrastructure; livestock development; costs; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
S.T. Rekha, Jagdish S. Matti, and B.K. Narainswami
Herbal medicines that can be prepared from locally available resources are often effective, less expensive, and more eco-friendly than industrially produced veterinary drugs. In 1997, a study on the traditional disease control practices for ruminants was conducted in Shimoga district of Karnataka State, India.
To treat foot-and-mouth disease, a mixture of leaves of Tagetes erecta (African marigold) and camphor is ground, heated, and applied on the ulcers of the foot. Farmers also grind and mix 50 g jaggery, 15 g salt, and 15 g roots of Swertia chirata (chirayuta). They apply a small quantity to the ulcers in the mouth and feed the rest to the sick animal. To treat rabies, people mix Swertia chirata (chirayuta), Piper longum (long pepper), Brassica juncea (mustard), dry Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium cepa (onion), Mangifera indica (mango) leaves, Tylophora indica (kirumanji), Vitex negundo (lakkigida), and Andrographis paniculata (nelabevu) leaves. All these ingredients are crushed and drenched in butter milk and hot water. To treat blackquarter, the juice of Trianthema decandra (bilikomme) is mixed with 5 g Capsicum frutescens (chilli) powder and 5 g of smashed Allium sativum (garlic) and drenched twice a day for three days. For mastitis, the leaves and bark are taken of Albizzia amara (sujjalu), Vitex negundo (lakkigida), Adhatoda vasica (adumuttada soppu), leaves of Tinospora cordifolia (amrutaballi), Piper longum L. (pepper), and 0.25 kg Allium sativum (garlic). All ingredients are ground, put in hot water, and the juice is administered for three to four days. The paste of Tinospora cordifolia (amrutaballi) leaves is smeared on the udder. To control external parasites, the bark of Butea monosperma (bengal kino) is powdered and 10 tablespoons of the powder are mixed with butter milk and applied all over the body. Alternatively the leaves of Leucas aspera (tumbe), Clerodendrum inerme (vishamdhari), and Azadirachta indica (neem) are ground to a fine paste, then mixed with Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) powder and applied all over the body. Internal parasites are controlled by drenching a mixture of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) powder with the juice of Agave americana (century plant) leaves. For severe diarrhoea, animals are drenched with Allium cepa (onion) mixed with butter milk.
Looking at this information, it is evident that the spectrum of local treatments is wide and that animal health and veterinary science should have a closer look at these treatments.
Key words: field research; traditional treatments; foot-and-mouth disease; blackquarter; mastitis; parasites; diarrhoea; cattle; Karnataka, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Homeopathic remedies have been used in the treatment of animal diseases for a long time. There are some books on homeopathic remedies in animals but there is no mention about homeopathy in the curriculum of veterinary college education in universities in India. Presently, many veterinary doctors who are using homeopathic remedies are reading books on homeopathy for humans or consult with practising homeopaths. However, published reports are scanty although veterinary practitioners do have encouraging experience about the usefulness of homeopathy. There appears to be no harm in using homeopathy in cases where there is no specific curative remedy in allopathy. Viral diseases, antibiotic-resistant infections, and conditions of unknown aetiology are some examples.
The author has been working as a teacher of medicine at Nagpur Veterinary College since 1968. In the course of his attachment to the college's Cattle Breeding Farm, he was required to carry out routine treatments and to supervise the healthcare of the animals. Seven cows at the farm had obstinate mammary gland infections with Corynebacterium and did not respond to the routine intramammary and systemic application of antibiotics. As a trial, the homeopathic drug Phytolacca 200 X tincture was used for 10 days. All the animals showed remarkable recovery and five animals were cured of the infection.
In a comparative study on subclinical mastitis, 87% of 45 affected quarters treated with homeopathy recovered as confirmed by bacterial isolation, while in another group treated with antibiotics only 27% recovered. Thereafter the study was extended to foot-and-mouth disease with very encouraging results. These drugs are extensively used in the field. Subsequently the university approved a multilocational research project wherein about 500 animals at three different locations were treated with homeopathic drugs. The findings have been very encouraging. We have therefore come out with homeopathic remedies for about 10 common animal disease conditions. Drugs found useful during our observations are being applied in clinical practice with good results. Homeopathic cures need to be authenticated and recognised for use in clinical practice.
Key words: homeopathy; cattle; mastitis; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
A large segment of the world's livestock population is still dependent on traditional knowledge and ethnoveterinary practices for its healthcare. Many of these practices offer viable alternatives to conventional western-style veterinary medicine and are especially relevant in developing countries with limited financial resources. Because of great interest in and acceptance of such alternatives, ethnoveterinary research and development (ER&D) has become a fertile area of technology development. An interdisciplinary approach is essential because of the multiplicity of factors and insights involved. Ethnoveterinary medicine includes a wide spectrum of techniques that can be improved through techno-blending. Conversely, modern science also benefits by drawing upon local knowledge of animal healthcare and husbandry. ER&D covers enterprise, environment, healthcare delivery, public health, education, socioeconomics, planning, and policies. These aspects will be elaborated in the context of the present status in India and in relation to future prospects.
Key words: ethnoveterinary research and development; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Comparative studies on the ethnobotany of distinctly different regions within or between countries and continents can provide valuable insights in the uses and properties of plants and the width and depth of indigenous knowledge. For the last four years, we have been making a comparative study on indigenous uses of plants in India and Latin America. The study showed that some medicinal uses were common to both regions pointing to the credibility of the medicinal virtues attributed to these plants. Other medicinal uses were widely practised in Latin America but appeared less known or unknown in India and vice versa. Such information can be very useful for the other region. The paper describes the ethnoveterinary uses of some plants which have not yet been practised in India and are of great potential. These need to be analysed and studied.
Key words: medicinal plants; ethnoveterinary medicine; comparative ethnobotany; Latin America; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
S. Sindhu, B.K. Narainswami, and K. Amitha
Ethnoveterinary medicine involves local peoples' knowledge pertaining to animal health and production. Women's participation is an emerging concept in the changing scenario. Livestock production is a family enterprise in which men, women, and children join hands. Since the old days women have been involved in livestock production and healthcare. Men and women have different kinds of knowledge regarding the rearing of livestock. Compared to men, women have more practical knowledge as she is the one who actually takes care of the animals when men go out in search of jobs. But women's knowledge is seldom recorded or recognised. Projects generally work with men only. An invisible barrier often prevents women from gaining access to information about projects and other activities. Those usually receiving paraveterinary training are men as are the majority of veterinary professionals.
Veterinarians have taken very little interest to study ethnoveterinary medicine for livestock and comparing its efficacy with western drugs by involving women. Globally very little research on ethnoveterinary practices has involved women. To obtain a clear idea about the different roles played by men and women in ethnoveterinary research, development, and promotion, due importance should be given to their level and quality of knowledge. The involvement of men and women in decision-making regarding livestock management and also the extent to which women's knowledge will affect men's decisions should be studied.
Various analyses conducted by working groups on general science and technology had reached the conclusion that the gross number of highly trained scientists and technicians in India stood 3rd in the global scene, but the representation of women in science subjects was around 28%, and their representation in the veterinary field was negligible. Most science and technology programmes in developing countries have failed so far because they have not properly taken into account the gender factor in development. Hence special steps are necessary to give women access to information and skills in ethnoveterinary medicine. To improve women's participation in ethnoveterinary medicine and meet the challenge of sustainable animal production, researchers need to identify and understand women's role in ethnoveterinary medicine, provide more appropriate technologies to women farmers, and select the best strategy for reaching them. Women should be involved in every aspect of ethnoveterinary development and promotion for sustainable animal production.
Key words: women; livestock development; gender; ethnoveterinary medicine; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
A.M. Thaker, S.K. Bhavsar, J.G. Sarvaiya, R.K. Mishra, and M.P. Verma
Ancient Indian literature and traditional folklore claim that many plants have insecticidal or parasiticidal properties. Previous studies in our laboratory indicated that the seeds of Annona squamosa can kill lice, while clinical studies also revealed their acaricidal activity. Subsequently, the seed extract was studied for its subacute dermal toxicity, following its repeated application. The trials demonstrated that topical application was safe. This study reports on the toxicity of Annona squamosa seeds after oral application.
Five-week old broiler chicks were divided into two groups. The treatment group was orally administered hexane extract of Annona squamosa seeds at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg body weight daily for three weeks. The control group received refined cottonseed oil according to the same treatment schedule. For both groups, live body weights were recorded weekly. All birds were observed for any toxicological signs. The results indicated that there was not much difference in body weight gain between both groups. The birds did not reveal any kind of toxic manifestations including that of neurotoxicity. This preliminary study indicates that hexane extract of Annona squamosa seeds has no toxic effects after oral administration at this level of dosage in poultry.
Key words: clinical study; Annona squamosa; oral application; toxicity; chicken.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Bharat R. Thaker
Acupuncture and moxibustion are ancient healing arts. The mechanism of their action and effect in disease treatment is not yet understood, but nevertheless a large number of practitioners are employing these techniques in different parts of the world.
In 1940 scientists in the former USSR developed novocain blockade, a therapy that acts through the nervous systems. They successfully used this type of acupuncture in inflammatory conditions. Nowadays, a number of conditions in animals and humans are successfully treated with it, including peritonitis, gastritis, spasmodic colic, ruminal atony, pancreatitis, hepatitis, cystitis, orchitis, udder oedema, mastitis, and other acute visceral inflammations.
Because little information on this technique is available in India, this study investigated the efficacy of novocain blockade in clinical cases of primary ruminal dysfunctions and udder oedema and mastitis in dairy cattle and buffaloes. In 98 cases of primary indigestion (PI) and 58 cases of udder oedema and mastitis (UOM) three types of treatments were tested: 1. acupuncture (ACP) (epipleural novocain blockade), 2. conventional method (CM), and 3. conventional method supplemented with ACP.
Of the 98 PI cases, 28 received ACP. These animals showed clinical improvement after 48 hours such as increased appetite, rumination, and increased in milk yield. The remaining 70 animals received CM. Only 18 showed clinical improvements within three to eight days. The 52 animals that had not responded to CM were treated subsequently with ACP. Of these animals, 34 improved within 24 hours after blockage. The other 18 did not respond to the treatment and were found suffering from chronic digestive disturbances.
Six of seven UOM cases that were treated with ACP showed clinical improvement within 48 hours of blockade. The remaining 51 animals with UOM received CM. Seven showed improvement within four to six days. The 44 animals that did not respond within 72 hours to the CM treatment received ACP. After two to three days, 37 of the animals improved.
The results of this study indicate that epipleural nocovocain blockade enhances the recovery of PI and UOM cases.
Key words: clinical study; novocain blockade; cattle; buffaloes; ruminal dysfunction; mastitis.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
P. Venkataramaiah and Arati V. Marathe
A preliminary survey of medicinal plants of Nandurbar Taluka and their veterinary uses was made. Main emphasis was given to the five most common livestock diseases. More than 70% of the total population of Nandurbar Taluka are tribes such as Bhils, Gamits, Gavits, Kokanis, Mavchis, Tadvis, Valvis, and Vasaves, spread over 95 villages west of Nandurbar town.
About 30 plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine were recorded. For each plant, the paper gives the following information: details of plant parts used, preparation and dosage of medicines, vernacular names in Marathi, Tribal, and English (wherever possible), and voucher number of herbarium.
Key words: field research; medicinal plants; ethnoveterinary medicine; Nandurbar Taluka, India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
V.N Viswanatha Reddy, B.K. Narainswami, and N. Nomesh Kumar
Taking a holistic approach to treating animals means using allopathic, homeopathic, and Ayurvedic medicines in an integrated way. The choice of methods and their combination depends on the disease and the availability of drugs. Holistic approaches are one attempt towards sustainable animal production. They have become necessary in the light of the disadvantages of allopathic drugs, such as toxic effects, inappropriate therapies, and non-availability of drugs. Holistic approaches have a definite advantage over using the individual methods alone. But care needs to be taken to avoid failures and to achieve the desired response. This paper suggests holistic treatment approaches for five conditions of bovine reproductive problems.
Active foot-and-mouth disease (FMD): using a mouth wash with Hydrastis and Semper Vivum Tectotrum and feeding pills of Zincum Metallicum 200, Nitric Acid 200, Variolium 200, and Mercksol 200 (homeopathic treatment). Feeding ripened banana (Musa paradisica) dipped in pig fat or gingielly (Sesamum indicum) oil (Ayurvedic treatment). Washing the mouth lesions with 4% washing soda is advised (allopathic treatment).
After-effects of FMD (in female animals, FMD will cause anoestrus and reduce milk yield): feeding pills of Ipecac 30, Thyroidinum 30, and Aurum Iodum 200 (homeopathic treatment). Feeding germinated menthya (Trigonella sp.) seeds and fried gingielly seeds in jaggery (Ayurvedic treatment). Injecting compounds having iodine or giving potassium iodide or Thyroxine tablets is indicated (allopathic treatment).
Eversion of uterus: feeding pills of Opium 200 with or without Carboveg (homeopathic treatment). Applying extract of touch-me-not (Mimosa pudica) to the everted uterus and also giving it orally (Ayurvedic treatment). Injecting epidurally amyl alcohol is advised (allopathic treatment).
Repeat breeder: using pills of Aurum Iodum 200 and Thyroidinum 30 (homeopathic treatment). Feeding Aloes Compound tablets (Alarsin company) (Ayurvedic treatment). Mostly prostaglandin or GnRH or hCG injections are practiced (allopathic treatment).
Mastitis: feeding Bryonia 200, Belladonna 200, and Echinesiae 30 (homeopathic treatment). Applying a paste prepared from tumeric (Curcuma longa), millet (Panicum grossarium), and butter and feeding gunja (Abrus precatorious) (Ayurvedic treatment). Injecting antibiotics, antihistamines, and liver extract parenterally and intramammary infusion of antibiotics are practised (allopathic treatment).
For treating any of the foregoing diseases, homeopathic, Ayurvedic, or standard allopathic treatments can be employed individually or in combination based on efficacy and economic considerations.
Key words: homeopathy; Ayurvedic medicine; allopathic medicine; treatments; cattle; foot-and-mouth disease; eversion of uterus; repeat breeder; mastitis.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Pastoralists in the Indian Thar Desert have a vast treasure of knowledge and experience. Both sedentary and migratory herders earn their livelihood from livestock in the most remote and stressful conditions. In deserts, shifting sand dunes, dryness, and scarcity of water and fodder create extremely difficult conditions for people and their livestock. In the absence of infrastructure and institutional support, valuable age-old ethnoveterinary skills and practices are the only means to sustain such a mobile livestock farming system. Treating sick animals with a wide array of methods ranging from firing to applying plant materials; feeding newborns, pregnant animals, and breeding bulls; carefully selecting and breeding livestock while maintaining genetic biodiversity - these are all amazing ways noteworthy to research. Knowledge traditionally passed on from generation to generation is of significant value for better herding, feeding, and breeding. Ethnoveterinary medicine is yet a virgin area to be researched for its appropriate use. Its socioeconomic aspects have to be studied to increase productivity and income, its effects on ecology and biodiversity to facilitate sustainable agropastoralism in the Thar Desert. Scientific insights are needed to assess the validity, efficacy, feasibility, and cost effectiveness of ethnoveterinary medicine and make it available as an alternative to conventional medicine for the benefit of pastoralists and their animal wealth.
Key words: ethnoveterinary medicine; pastoralists; Thar Desert; India.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Jacob B. Wanyama
This paper describes the methodology and preliminary results of ethnoveterinary research and development being conducted by the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) among the Samburu people in Samburu district in the northern part of Kenya. The Samburu and Turkana are semi-nomadic pastoralists whose economy depends on livestock. Disease is a major constraint to livestock production. Due to the recent decline in livestock economy and the current structural adjustments leading to cutbacks of government veterinary services, the Samburu and Turkana - like many other pastoralists in the arid and semi-arid (ASAL) areas of Kenya - are finding it increasingly difficult to access modern veterinary services. As a result, they are relying more on their ethnoveterinary medicine to keep their livestock healthy. However, due to lack of scientifically validated information on preparation and effectiveness of ethnoveterinary medicine, development professionals are hesitant to integrate ethnoveterinary practices into their animal healthcare programmes.
The research described in this paper is aimed at developing a methodology to scientifically validate, improve, and promote the use of effective ethnoveterinary practices. The field methodology relies on PRA techniques to identify the ethnoveterinary remedies most confidently used by the Samburu and elicit descriptions on their preparation and administration. Using this methodology, information on more than 41 plant-based remedies was collected. The paper discusses how these remedies are being promoted among Samburu through some kind of "value-adding" and providing feedback to the source community. It also shows how the experience gained from this research is being used to influence national research institutions, development organisations, and veterinarians to support ethnoveterinary research and development.
Key words: field research; ethnoveterinary medicine; participatory validation methods; Samburu; Kenya.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
F.N. White and P. Rowlinson
The paper reports observations on the use of modern and traditional treatments of mixed livestock kept by Samburu pastoralists in northern Kenya. In co-operation with SAIDIA (Samburu Aid in Africa), an NGO based in the Samburu district of Kenya providing human health service, a survey was conducted between November 1996 and March 1997. Semi-structured questionnaires were used, via an interpreter.
Samburu are semi-nomadic pastoralists and follow a traditional way of life. They look after and depend on cattle, sheep, goats, and camels. A large proportion of the interviewees relied on livestock as their sole source of income. They ranked animal health as the most important issue concerning their livestock. Ndiss (a complex of symptoms associated with contagious hepatitis, anaplasmosis, and jaundice), pneumonia, malignant catarrhal fever, and trypanosomosis, were mentioned by the community as being the most important livestock diseases. A marked increase in the use of modern medicines in recent years was reported. However, traditional remedies still played a major role in the treatment of animal health problems. Examples include preparations made from locally available trees and herbs using variously the roots, bark, gum, fruits, seeds, or leaves; giraffe hides; donkey dung; cows' urine; ant hill mud; and a hot metal poker. Although many interviewees expressed a preference for modern drugs, 70% said that they often still rely on traditional remedies. Generally, elders were found to have a more detailed knowledge of the use and preparation of traditional treatments, while the younger generations placed a greater reliance on modern drugs, possessed a more limited knowledge of the traditional herbal treatments, and were also more sceptical of their likely efficacy than were the elders.
Problems associated with the use of modern veterinary drugs were lack of knowledge of the selection of appropriate drugs, incorrect drug administration, incorrect drug doses, availability and cost of drugs, and ignorance of disposal and withdrawal periods prior to product consumption which may be hazardous to human health.
Little is known of the efficacy of the traditional treatments: views of specific treatments ranged from "harmful" to "useful" and "surpassing modern equivalents". At present traditional herbs are still available in the area although knowledge relating to where to locate and how to prepare them is declining. The younger generation showed no interest in expanding knowledge or use of traditional treatments. By contrast the community expressed a desire for assistance with modern drugs in terms of both provision and training.
Samburu almost entirely depend upon their animals and consequently their livestock's health and productive potential are extremely important. Evaluation of the efficacy of traditional treatments would be of considerable use to the community for two reasons. Firstly, while traditional remedies are currently available, knowledge of their preparation and effective administration is being lost in younger generations. Secondly, the availability, cost, and incorrect administration of modern veterinary medicines often preclude their successful use.
Key words: field research; pastoralists; ethnoveterinary medicine; modern veterinary medicine; Samburu; northern Kenya.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
G. Wirtu, G. Adugna, T. Samuel, and E. Kelbessa
Ethnoveterinary research, development, and extension could have a significant impact on development if the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of livestock owners were properly investigated and considered. Actions could then be taken to avoid or modify harmful practices and use the beneficial ones, and develop packages that can be introduced and implemented successfully. In early 1995, a survey in central Ethiopia was conducted to collect baseline information on traditional veterinary medicine (TVM). A total of 104 farmers (both illiterates and literates from three ethnic groups) were interviewed on aspects of their KAP. TVM was the alternative most frequently utilised by 41% of the farmers to handle animal health problems and 85% had utilised TVM alternatives at least once. TVM in the region incorporates mainly herbal preparations. Other types of practices include surgical manipulations and magico-religious and managerial practices.
Aspects of KAP on six livestock diseases were assessed. About 77% of the farmers complained about endoparasitism, 67% about blackquarter (BQ), 50% about anthrax, 11% about rinderpest, 9% about foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and 10% about rabies. About 73% of BQ complainers utilised TVM as the primary treatment alternative and only 27% reported that they used modern veterinary medicine (MVM). A high proportion relied primarily on TVM for the treatment of BQ and FMD. For the treatment of endoparasitism and anthrax, the majority relied primarily on MVM. But 29% of anthrax complainers did not know that the disease could be treated. Regarding prophylactic alternatives, 73% of endoparasitism complainers didn't know about strategic deworming measures (MVM) and only 20% used the same. Among the six diseases, it was only for rinderpest that more than half (67%) knew about prophylactic measures such as vaccination.
An analysis of 130 Oromo and Amharic language vernacular names and descriptions (VNDs) of animal health problems showed that their coining was based on nine factors, mainly on clinical manifestation (48%), followed by alleged cause (20%) and effect of the disease and organ affected (11% each). The mentioning of some VNDs is eschewed in the vicinity of animals for alleged infection by doing so. Farmers in the region have a very good knowledge of the epidemiology of certain diseases based on which they also take actions (e.g. fasciolosis). However, a number of beliefs and practices were difficult to construe on scientific grounds and still others risky (e.g. craving for meat from rabid ruminants). Based on the observations made, areas of farmer training and future research were identified. This study was undertaken in a region with a relatively good infrastructure of modern animal health services. Thus the extent and impact of TVM on the Ethiopian livestock production is likely to be more marked in remote regions of the country.
Key words: field research; ethnoveterinary medicine; endoparasites; anthrax; foot-and-mouth disease; blackquarter; rabies; rinderpest; vernacular disease names; Oromo; Amharic; Ethiopia.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
Traditionally, livestock has been a key component of villagers' livelihood and the economy of Bangladesh. Through centuries rural people have been relying on a plant-based healthcare system for their domestic animals. But during the present century, widespread deforestation and over-exploitation and erosion of biodiversity have resulted in a rapid decline of wild plants, the only source of herbal medicine for the villagers. Moreover, government, non-government, or private bodies have so far made no attempts to research, develop, and promote the ethnoveterinary system in Bangladesh. No surveys on herbals, diseased cattle treated with them, related plant materials, and problems and prospects of the system have been made.
A pilot survey in four thanas (police stations) in two districts in northwestern Bangladesh in six villages identified 19 ethnoveterinary herbalists (kaviraj). They reported that they treated 17 diseases of cattle using as many as 39 local plant species, 16 of which could be identified botanically. The remaining plants need to be collected and examined for identification. All kavirajs reported to have good success in treating ailing cattle and to be received enthusiastically by the villagers. But they complained of acute shortage of several important plant species. They also mentioned that poverty and lack of support, training, and recognition from the authorities was affecting their profession seriously.
The author has been organising local NGOs, village groups, and kavirajs to document, conserve, and use ethnoveterinary plants grown in village homesteads and on under-utilised lands. The kavirajs are also organising themselves for training, recognition, and betterment of their profession and status.
Key words: field research; ethnobotany; ethnoveterinary medicine; local healers; medicinal plants; Bangladesh.Click to return to 'list of abstracts'
I.G. Adeymi, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
*Hamid Agab, Veterinary Researcher, Camel Project, AL Rajhi College for Agriculture, P.O. Box 2373, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966-6-391 1555 (ext. 658), fax +966-6-3911565.
*Allauddin Ahmad, Vice Chancellor, Jamca Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India. Tel. +91-11-6984484, fax +91-11-6988874.
*Mohamed Fadol Ahmed, University of Khartoum, Sudan, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Khartoum North 13314, Sudan.
*Darlington Akabwai, Veterinarian, Organisation of African Unity, Inter-African Bureau of Animal Resources, Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC-VAC of OAU/IBAR/PARC), Box 30786, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. +254-2-226447, fax +254-2-583358, email email@example.com
*Shripad Akolkar, Veterinary Consultant, A-2 Ameet Apartment, Ellora Park, Baroda 390007, India. Tel. +91-265-381532.
*Francesca Ambrosini, Phd Student, University of Veterinary Medicine Pisa, Via di Ripalta 32, 50020 Ginestra F.na., Italy. Tel. +39-55-8713178.
*Manibhai Shyamidas Amin, Manager (AHO), Dudh Sagar Dairy, Mehsana Dist., Coop. Milk Ltd., Mehsana 384002, India. Tel. +91-2762-53201, fax +91-2762-53422.
*Jayvir V. Anjaria, Consultant, C-5, Sonarika Apts., Atira Road, Ahmedabad 380015, India. Tel. +91-79-6564910, fax +91-79-6575584, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Michel Ansay, Professor, Pharmacology-Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Bld. de Colonster, B41 Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Tel. +32-4-3664170, fax +32-4-3664176.
*Stephen Ashdown, Downlands East Dean Chichester, W. Sussex PO18 0JA, United Kingdom. Tel. +44-1243-811357, fax +44-1234-811270.
*Aswin, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, India.
*Bose Atindra, Project Manager, Appropriate Technology India, 23 Yogashram Society, Manekbaug, Ambawadi, Ahmedbaad 15, India. Tel. +91-79-6640741, fax +91-79-6621573.
*Felix Bachmann, Programme Adviser, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation / Intercooperation, D-3 Casa Cavelle 4, 12/5 Lavelle Road, Bangalore 560001, India. Tel. +91-80-2243762, fax +91-80-2243763.
*V.C. Badve, R.P.C, BAIF, Central Research Station, Kamdhenu Nagar, Urulikanchan 412207, India. Tel. 816265, fax 816347.
P.H. Bayemi, Institute of Animal Research (IRVZ), Bambui, P.B. 51, Bamenda, Cameroon.
*Bernard Bel, Research Coordinator, French Centre for Human Sciences 2, Aurangzeb Road, New Delhi 110011, India. Tel. +91-11-3014173, email email@example.com.
*Adréine Bel, French Centre for Human Sciences 2, Aurangzeb Road, New Delhi 110011, India. Tel. +91-11-3014175, fax +91-11-3018480.
*Sudhakar Bhandare, Veterinary Student, K.N.P. College of Veterinary Science, Shirwal (Satara) 427, Ganesh Niwas, Shivaji Nagar, Ajara 416505, Dt. Kolhapur, India.
*Dilli Ram Bhandari, Veterinarian, Rural Development Centre, New Road, P.O. Box No.62, Pokhara, Nepal. Tel. +977-61-20492, fax +977-61-21953, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Praful Chandra Bhatnagar, Training Associate, V.B. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Udaipur, India. Tel. 560313, fax 524800.
*Gauri Bhatt, Researcher, SRISTI, Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad 380015, India. Tel. +91-79-407241, fax +91-79-6427896.
*Shailesh K. Bhavsar, Assistant Research Scientist, Veterinary College, G.A.U., Anand 388001, India.
*D.L. Bijwal, Associate Professor, Medicine, Dr. P.D.K.V. Akola, Department of Medicine, Akola 444104, India.
Nsekuye Bizimana, Grainauerstrasse 13, D-10777 Berlin, Germany. Tel./fax +49-30-2113599.
*Stephen Blakeway, Vetwork UK, 35D Beach Lane, Musselburgh, EH21 6JX, United Kingdom. Tel. +44-131-665 2412, email email@example.com.
*Set Bornstein, Department of Parasitology, National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 7073, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden . Tel. +46-18-674155, fax +46-18-309 162, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Vivek Gaur Broome, Research Assistant, ANTHRA, Shop F, Lantana Gardens, N.D.A. Rd., Bavdhan, Pune, India. Tel. +91-212-369065.
*Andy Catley, Vetwork UK, 51, Salisbury Road, Edinburgh EH16 5AA, United Kingdom. Tel./fax 44-131-667 8299, email email@example.com.
*A. Chakrabarti, Professor, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, BCKV Staff Quarter, Mohanpur, Nadia, W. Bengal 741252, India. Tel. 556-5021.
*E.K. Chaudhari, Manager (Animal Husbandry), Vasudhara Dairy, Alipur 396409, Dt. Valsad, India. Tel. +91-2634-32761.
T.U. Chinthu, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
N.P. Dakshinkar, N.P. Department of Medicine, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur 440006, India.
*P.A. Deore, formerly BAIF, A/7 Vinze Wada, 129 Shukrawar Peth, Pune 411002, India. Tel. +91-212-472931.
*Jaydeep M. Desai, Veterinary Officer, Sumul Dairy, Surat, India. Tel. +91-261-427691.
*Pankaj U. Desai, Deputy Director (Animal Husbandry), Directorate of Animal Husbandry, Krishi Bhuvan, Paldi, Ahmedabad 380006, India. Tel. +91-79-6579601.
*Subodh M. Desai, D.P.C., BAIF, Griserv Administration Office, 3rd Floor, Indra Complex, Sindhawai Mata Road, Manjalpur, Baroda 390004, India. Tel. +91-265-429802.
*R.C. Deshmukh, Sr. D. Officer, BAIF (MITTRA), Shubhorambhe Complex, Sharanpur Road, Opp. Kulkarni Garden, Wank 2, India. Tel./fax 313395.
*Felix R. Doepmann, Dorfstr. 40, D-21401 Radenbeck, Germany. Tel. +49-5859-383, fax +49-5858-561 or +49-4131-406838.
*S.K. Dwivedi, Head, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar 243122, India. Tel. +91-581-441587, fax +91-581-447284.
*Baldwin L. Dy, Veterinarian, 10 Yardley Street, Sta. Lucia Village III, Punturin, Valenzuela, Metro Manila, Philippines. Tel. 445-32-40.
*D. Ebenezer, Director of Animal Husbandry, Tynampet, Chennai 600006, Tamilnadu, India. Tel. 4338714.
T.J. Fernandez, Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, VISCA, Baybay, Leyte 6521-A, Philippines.
*C.R. Field, Private Consultant, P.O. Box 485, Nanyuki, Kenya. Tel. +254-176-22637, fax +254-176-32883.
*Denis Fielding, Senior Lecturer, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland, United Kingdom. Tel. +44-131-650 6259, fax +44-131-445 5099, email denisf@LAB0.VET.ED.AC.UK.
*Kumar Gahlot, Editor, Journal of Camel Practice and Research, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Veterinary College, 67 Gandhi Nagar West, near Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner 334001, India. Tel. +91-151-527 029 or 521 282, fax +91-151-540 274.
*Nitya Ghotge, Co-Director, ANTHRA, Shop F, Lantana Gardens, N.D.A Road, Bavdhan Pune, India. Tel. +91-212-260282, fax +91-212-369065.
*S.B. Gokhale, Research Programme Director, BAIF Central Research Station, Kamdhenu Nagar, Urulikanchan, Dist. Pune 412207, India. Tel. 816248, fax 816347.
*Daniel Gonzalez Acuna, Veterinarian, Private Practitioner, Valdivia 725, Casilla 123, San Fernando, Chile. Tel. +56-72-713301.
S.K. Gowda, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore 560030, India.
*Anil K. Gupta, SRISTI, Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad 380015, India. Tel. +91-79-407241, fax +91-79-6427896.
*Jagdish Chandra Gupta, Chief Functionary, Pashu Palak Vikas Sansthan, Mata Mandir Road, Mukhardeenagar Kashipur, Dist. Nanital, U.P. 244713, India. Tel. +91-5947-75015.
*Guruji (Fr.) Joe Mary Lobo, Director, Sri Christa Sharan (Social Development Society Regd.), Birur, Chikmangalur Dt., Karnataka 577116, India. Tel. +91-8267-55623 or 55714, fax +91-8267-55623.
*Parbati Gurung, Animal Health and Livestock Trainer, AHITP, RDC, Pokhara, Nepal. Mailindg address: RDC, United Mission to Nepal (UMN) P.O. Box 126, Kathmandu, Nepal.
S. Hajare, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India.
*Khan Shaheen Hamed, Veterinary Officer, Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Zaheerabad 502220, Medak, A.P., India. Tel. +91-845-82809.
Lynn Hirschkind, Apartado 01-01-1157, Cuenca, Ecuador.
*Katrien van't Hooft, Lamerislaan 456, 3571 LP Utrecht, Netherlands. Tel./fax +31-30-2760079, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Christian Hülsebusch, University of Hohenheim, Centre for Tropical Agriculture, Institute for Animal Production, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany. Tel. +49-711-4593173, fax +49-711-4593290, email email@example.com.
*M.N.M. Ibrahim, Senior Lecturer, University of Peradeniya, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Tel. +94-1-593588, fax +94-1-588875, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*K.C. Indina, Animal Health and Livestock Trainer, RDC, Pokhara, Nepal. Mailing address: RDC, United Mission to Nepal (UMN), P.O. Box 126, Kathmandu, Nepal.
A.G. Jagun, National Animal Production Research Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
*Shailendra Jain, Director, Daglia Agro Vet. Chm. Pvt. Ltd., 8 Tuna Pitha, Indore 2, India. Tel. +91-731-532487.
R.G. Jani, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand 388001, India.
*Ashok S. Jape, A.C.P.C., BAIF-Griserv 8, Paritosh Society, Gogha Jaga Naka, Bhavnagar 364001, India. Tel. +91-278-564294.
*Jayaraman, Field Worker, SEVA, 43 T.P.M. Nagar, Virattipathu, Madurai 625110, India. Tel. +91-452-604082.
T.N. Jayatileka, Agro-enterprise Development Project, 252 Galle Road, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka.
V.L. Jayshree, Postgraduate Student, Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore 560024, India.
Basavaprabhu Jirli, Ph.D. Scholar, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 123001, India.
*A.J. John, Principal Specialist and Co-ordinator, Action for Food Production (AFPRO), 12-13-674 Street No. 20, Nagarjunanagar, Taranaka, Secunderabad 17, India. Tel. 7150413.
*M.S. Kadu, Former Dean, Dr.P.D.K.V. Akola, 48 SE Rly. Coloy II, Rana Pratap Nagar, Nagpur 440022, India. Tel. +91-712-226213.
*R.N. Kamath, Product Manager, Alembic Chemical Workds Co. Ltd., Alembic Road, Baroda, India. Tel. +91-265-380880, fax +91-265-382643.
*B.M.D. Kambewa, Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe, Malawi. Fax +265-277-364/304.
*Kalkule Kansonia, Pharmacology-Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Bld. de Colonster, B41 Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Fax +32-4-3664176.
*Brigitte Kaufmann, University of Hohenheim, Centre for Tropical Agriculture, Institute for Animal Production, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.
*N.H. Kelawala, Assistant Professor of Surgery, Veterinary College, Department of Surgery, GAU, Anand 388001, Gujarat, India. Tel. 21666 (ext.276) or 21921, fax 41520.
*Kemparaja, Veterinary Officer, Veterinary Hospital, Ramanagaram, Bangalore, India.
*M.C. Kerkkad, Deputy Manager (PGI), Risk of Dairy, Dudh Suran Marg, Rajkot 3, India. Tel. 387353.
*C.M. Ketakar, Secretary, Rural Agriculture Institute, Narayangaon, India. Tel. Narayangaon 410504.
*Ripal Khamar, Researcher, SRISTI, Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad 380015, India. Tel. +91-79-407241, fax +91-79-6427896.
N.D. Khanna, 9/901 Multistorey Building, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur 302017, India.
Wilson M. Kisamo, Livestock Field Officer, NGO Pastoralists Training, P.O. Box 13657, Arusha, Tanzania.
*Ilse Köhler-Rollefson, League for Pastoral People, Pragelatostr. 20, 64372 Ober-Ramstadt, Germany. Tel./fax +49-6154- 53642, email email@example.com.
*Rajesh Prakash Kokje, Veterinary College (GAU), Anand, India.
*S. Koteeswaran, Project Coordinator (Animal Husbandry), Danida, Pudukottai, Tamilnadu, India. Tel. +91-4322-24686.
*Lal Krishna, Assistant Director General (Animal Husbandry), I.C.A.R./DARE, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 1, India. Tel. +91-11-3384649, email krishi@icar.Delhi.nic-in.
*Pratima Krishnan, Senior Consultant, Om Consultants (Indian) Pvt. Ltd., 84, Kalpataru, 9th cross 6th Main, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560003, India. Tel. +91-80-3349540 or 3347228, fax +91-80-3347209, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*D.K. Kulkarni, J.S.A. Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune, India. Tel. +91-212-354357.
*N.K. Kulkarni, Postgraduate Student, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Veterinary College, U.A.S, Bangalore, India.
*Dinesh Kumar, Scientist, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI), Avikanagar, Via Jaipur, Rajasthan 304501, India . Tel. +91-1437-8130.
*Dinesh Kumar, Scientist, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar U.P. 243122, India.
*Basant Kumar Koge, Office Correspondent, Bi-Monthly Magazine Shalihotra Pashuchikitsa Vigyan, Mandleshwar Dist. Khargone, M.P. 451221, India.
*M.S. Kumbhojkar, Scientist, In-charge Botany Group, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agharkar Road, Pune, India.
*Manik Ch. Kuri, Programme Officer, M.C.C, Maijdee Court, Box No.5, Naokhali, Bangladesh. Tel. 5433.
*Shyam Singh Lakhawat, A.D.O, BAIF, New Colony, Jhadol 313702, Dist. Udaipur, India. Tel. +91-29591-2334.
*Jawahar Lal, Principal Scientist, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar 243122, U.P, India.
*Cokro Setio Leksmono, Deliveri Project - Indonesia, Jl. Adhiyaksa No.17, Ujung Pandang 90222, Indonesia. Tel. +62-411-454600, fax +62-411-459300.
Tim Leyland, Organisation of African Unity, Inter-African Bureau of Animal Resources, Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC-VAC of OAU/IBAR/PARC), Box 30786, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. +254-2-226447, fax +254-2-583358, email email@example.com
*Ann-Si Li, DVM, OMD, Assisi Acupuncture Ltd., 2693 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708-1921, USA. Tel./fax +1-510-8481995, email Assisi3AsL@aol.com.
*Francis Peter Macwan, Project Executive, National Tree Growers Cooperative Federation Ltd., c/o NDDB, Anand 388001, India. Tel. 21402, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*B.P. Madrewar, Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry, Regional Joint Director of Animal Husbandry, Aurangabad, India. Tel. 32985.
*J.K. Malik, Head, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar 243122, U.P., India. Tel. +91-581-440291.
*K.R. Mangurkar, Senior Development Officer, BAIF, Kamdhenu Nagar, Urulikanchan, Dist. Pune 412207, India. Tel. 816312, fax 816347.
B.P. Manjunatha, Indian Herbs, 311m 40th Cross, I Main, 8th Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore, India.
*Marina Martin, Postgraduate Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland, United Kingdom. Tel. +44-131-650-1000.
*Evelyn Mathias, Independent Consultant, Weizenfeld 4, 51467 Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. Tel. +49-2202-932921, fax +49-2202-932922, email email@example.com.
*A.C. Mathur, Officer on Spl. Duty, BAIF, C-35 Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India. Tel. +91-11-6962903.
*Jagdish S. Matti, Postgraduate Student, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Veterinary College, U.A.S., Bangalore, India. Tel.+91-80-3418133.
*Constance M. McCorkle, President, CMC Consulting, 7767 Trevino Lane, Falls Church VA 22043, USA. Tel. +1-703-2041837, fax +1-703-2041296, email Constancemccorkle@msn.com.
*Bhanwas Lal Meena, Traditional Healer, Jagran Jan Vikas Samiti, A/P Valli, Dist. Udaipur, India. Tel. 523456.
*Vahetha Menon, Project Executive (Animal Husbandry), League for Education and Development, 40, First Street, Rayarthoppu Sriramapuram, Srirangam, Trichy 620006, India.
*Binayak Misra, Project Director, Integrated Livestock Development, Indo Danish Project, Jeypore, India. Tel. 23226, fax 23428.
*R.R. Mohan, Director Operations, Om Consultants (Indian) Pvt. Ltd., 84, Kalpataru, 9th cross 6th Main, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560003, India. Tel. +91-80-3349540 or 3347228, fax +91-80-3347209, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Shivama Muddegauda, Local Healer, BAIF-K, Tiptur, India.
*Paul Mundy, Development Communication Specialist, Weizenfeld 4, 51467 Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. Tel. +49-2202-932921, fax +49-2202-932922, email email@example.com.
*Tri Budhi Murdiati, Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Jln. Martadinata 30, Bogor 16114, Indonesia . Tel. +62-251-331048, fax +62-251-336425.
*V.B.G. Krishna Murthy, Executive Animal Husbandry, Indo Swiss Project, V.B.R.I. Campus, Shantinagar, Hyderabad 500028, India.
*S.V. Murugesan, Assistant Professor, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University, University Training and Research Centre, 2 Sundar Street, Thirunagar, Madurai 625006, India. Tel. +91-452-882955.
*Babiker Elhag Musa, Veterinary Doctor, Diwan of Royal Court, P.O. Box 1844, Code 111, Sultanate of Oman. Tel. +968-539623 , fax +968-893802.
*R. Sabarinathan Nair, Dean, Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Kurumbapet, Pondicherry 605009, India. Tel. +91-413-71671, fax +91-413-72005.
*Augustine Taban Namanda, Veterinarian, FARM AFRICA, P.O. Box 795, Nanyuki, Kenya. Tel. +254-176-32352, fax +254-176-32883.
*B.K. Narainswami, Associate Professor, Staff Training Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Tel. +91-80-3411483, fax +91-80-3334804.
*S.D. Nimbalkar, B.P.O., BAIF Institute for Rural Development, Tiptur - Hassan Road, Tiptur 572202, Karnataka, India. Tel. 51337.
*Otto Frank, Technical Adviser, GTZ, Maputo CC 1766, Mozambique. Tel. +258-1-475522, fax +258-1-492323.
*M.R. Pachegaonkar, Maharashtra Deoni Cattle Breeding Association, Latur, Maharashtra, India. Tel. 43309.
*V. Padmakumar, Assistant Manager, Kerala Co-op. Milk Federation, MRCMPU, Kunnamangalam P.O., Calicut, Kerala, India. Tel. +91-495-200612, fax +91-495-200651.
*A.P. Palanivelu, SEVA, 43 T.P.M. Nagar, Virattipathu, Madurai 625110, India. Tel. 604082.
*C.B. Pande, Deputy General Manager (Technical), Indian Herbs, 311m 40th Cross, I Main, 8th Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore, India. Tel. +91-80-6635656 or 6656457, fax +91-80-6656652.
*A.N. Pandey, Veterinary Officer, MYSF (Manjre (BK), Military officer, c/o R.V.S. HQ S.C., Pune 1, India. Tel. +91-212-606797 or 602799.
S.N. Pandey, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.
*B.P. Panjunatha, Deputy Manager (Technical), Indian Herbs, 311m 40th Cross, I Main, 8th Block, Jayanagar, Bangalore, India.
*Minoor H. Parabia, Professor, South Gujarat University, Shri Bapalal Vaidya Bot. Res. Centre, Surat, India. Tel. +91-261-42 7141-49.
*Dharmsinh Pethaji Parmar, Manager (Animal Husbandry), Dudh Sagar Dairy, Mehsana Dist. Coop. Milk Ltd., Mehsana 384002, India.
*A.J. Kachhia Patel, Deputy Director (Animal Husbandry), Veterinary College, Anand, India. Tel. 21921.
P.R. Patel, Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, Veterinary College, Anand 388001, India.
*B.R. Patil, Programme Director, BAIF, Griserv Administration Office, 3rd Floor, Indra Complex, Sindhawai Mata Road, Manjalpur, Baroda 390004, India. Tel. +91-265-429802.
*K.A. Patil, Baroda Dairy, Baroda, Gujarat, India.
*R.E. Patil, Asstistant General Manager, c/o NABARD, Opp. Municipal Garden, Usmanpura, Ahmedabad, India. Tel. +91-79-6449582.
*Raul Perezgrovas, Researcher, University of Chiapas, Elipe Flores # 14, San Cristobal De Las Casas, 29200 Chiapas, Mexico. Tel. +52-967-85980, fax +52-967-83534, email Rgrovas@montebello.unach.mx.
*P.M. Potdar, Managing Director, Aurangabad Co-op. Milk Union, Jalana Road, Aurangabad, India. Tel. 336426.
*Jai Prakash R., Manager R&D, Indian Herbs, Research and Supply Co., P.B. 456, 164/3, V.T. Road, Bangalore 560004, India. Tel. +91-80-622673, fax +91-80-6612050, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*T.N. Prakash, Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences GKVK, Bangalore 560065, India. Tel. +91-80-3330153, fax +91-80-3330277.
*Md. Atwar Rahman, Programme Officer, Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), 1/1. Block A Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Tel. +880-2-9117065.
*S. Ramalinga Raju, Additional Director (Animal Husbandry), Directorate of A.H., Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, India. Tel. +91-40-3391335.
*Sagari R. Ramdas, Co-Director, ANTHRA, A-21 Sainikpuri, Secunderabad 500097, India. Tel. 711-2826, 711-3167, fax 711-7399.
*M. Ramadas, Assistant Director, Indo Swiss Project, c/o Chief Project Advisor, Indo Swiss Project, V.B.R.I. Campus, Shantinagar, Hyderabad 500028, India.
*V.V. Ranade, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India. Tel. +91-22-4131180.
*Sangeeta D. Rangnekar, President, Women Organisation for Rural Development (WORD), 4, Shobhana Apts., Nehrupark, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad, India. Tel. +91-79-6750572.
*D.V. Rangnekar, Sr. Vice President, BAIF, P.B. No. 2030, Asarwa, Ahmedabad 380016, India. Tel. +91-79-2123940, fax +91-79-2123045, email email@example.com.
*G. Kishan Rao, Joint Director (Animal Husbandry), Khammah AP, Nehru Nagar, Khammam, A.P. 507002, India. Tel. 24564.
*M. Mohan Rao, Assistant Director (Animal Husbandry), Veterinary Polyclinic, Satharampu, Hyderabad, India. Tel. +91-40-4603742.
*M. Ramakrishna Rao, Joint Director (Animal Husbandry), Veterinary Biological Research Institute, Shantinagar, Hyderabad, 28 A.P., India. Tel. +91-40-3316366.
*S.V.N. Rao, Head, Animal Husbandry Extension, Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Kurumbapet, Pondicherry 605009, India. Tel. +91-413-72006, fax +91-413-720065.
*Sanyasi Rao, Project Assistant, ANTHRA, A-21 Sainikpuri, Secunderabad 500094, India. Tel. 711-2826.
G.S. Rao, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India.
*Shravan Singh Rathore, Veterinary Assistant Surgeon, Sadri Pali, Lok Hit Pashu Palak Sansthan, Bhagwan Mahaveer Colony, Sadri 306702, Pali Dist., Rajasthan, India. Tel. +91-2934-3686.
*Hanwant Singh Rathore, Director, Sadri Pali, Lok Hit Pashu Palak Sansthan, Bhagwan Mahaveer Colony, Sadri 306702, Pali Dist., Rajasthan, India.
*C.G. Raut, Research Officer, National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, P.B. No.11, Pune 1, India. Tel. +91-212-627301.
S.K. Raval, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand 388001, India.
*D. Ravindra, Manager, National Agricultural and Rural Development Bank (NABARD), 7th. floor, Srinikethan, Dr.A.B. Road, Worli, Mumbai 400018, India. Tel. +91-22-4948990.
*A.K. Ray, Director of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, Orissa, Mangalabag, Cuttack 1, India.
*G.N.S. Reddy, C.P.C., BAIF Institute for Rural Development, Tiptur - Hassan Road, Tiptur 572202, Karnataka, India.
*V.N. Viswanatha Reddy, Professor, Gynaecology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore 560024, India. Tel. +91-80-3411483.
*S.T. Rekha, Postgraduate Student, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Veterinary College, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India. Tel. +91-80-3411501.
*C. Resmy, Postgraduate Student, University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore, Room No.208, NIMHANS Staff Hostel, Bangalore 560029, India.
*Sharmila Ribeiro, President, Appropriate Technology India, G-3 Abhinav Gardens, 34, Velachery Road, Chennai 600015, India. Tel. 2354328, fax 2355132.
*Md. Salahuddin, Field Supervisor, 1/1 Block A, Mohammedpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
*Temesgen Samuel, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
*V.A. Sapre, Professor and H.D. Medicine (retired), Nagpur Vet. College, A/2 Jantar Mantar Flats, Amravati Road, Nagpur, India. Tel. +91-712-525728.
*Pradip Kr. Sarma, Assistant Zonal Coordinator, AWARDE Foundation, NE Zonal Office, Dispur, Last Gate, Gauhati 6, India. Tel. +91-361-564651, fax +91-361-565467.
M.J. Saxena, Dabur Ayurvet Ltd., 22 Site IV, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad 201010, Uttar Pradesh, India.
*Tara D. Serrao, Principal Vanitha Jyothi Training Institute, Birur, Chikmangalur Dt., Karnataka 577116, India.
*Bhavani Shankar, Alembic Chemicals, Baroda, India. Tel. +91-265-382346, fax +91-265-382943.
*Y.V. Shankarnarayana, Deputy General Manager, NABARD, 54 Wellesly Road, Shivaji Nagar, Pune 411005, India. Tel. +91-212-319083, fax +91-212-313250.
*K.K. Sharma, R.P.C., BAIF, 17 Jagruritinagar, Baduah Road, Barielly 243121, India. Tel. 608019.
*Partheshwar Sharma, Deputy Manager, Bhilwara District Co-op. Milk Union, 5 km Ajmer Road, Bhilwara (Raj), India. Tel. 20318, 20341.
*A.S. Shinde, A.C.P.C., BAIF, RRIDMA-Circle Office 49, Kumbha Nagar, Sector No. 4, behind T.N. Hostel, Udaipur 313001, India. Tel. 483425, fax 483486.
*S.G. Shukla, A.C.P.C. , BAIF, 124 Krishna Nagar, Shastri Road, Bardoli 394601, Dist. Surat, Gujarat, India. Tel. +91-2622-21581.
*Ramlakhan Singh Sikarwar, Research Associate, Institute of Ethnobiology, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India. Tel. +91-522-271031-35, fax +91-522-282849 or 282881.
*S. Sindhu, Postgraduate Student, University of Agricultural Sciences, Room No.97, UAS Ladies Hostel, Hebbal, Bangalore 24, India . Tel. +91-80-3411501.
*Abhaya Singh, Deputy Director (Animal Husbandry), Department of Watershed Development and Soil Conservation, Krishi Bhavan, Jaipur 302004, India. Tel./fax +91-141-380858.
*K.P. Singh, Sheep and Wool Officer, Department of Watershed Development and Soil Conservation, Krishi Bhavan, Jaipur 302004, India. Tel./fax +91-141-380858.
*D.K. Singh, Principal Scientist, National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388001, India. Tel. 40148, fax 40156.
*Piedy Sreeramulu, Project Director, Indo Swiss Project, V.B.R.I. Campus, Shantinagar, Hyderabad 500028, India. Tel. 3320386, 229827, fax 3323025, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
*Anil Kumar Srivastava, Head, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, PAU, Ludhiana, India. Tel. +91-161-401960 (ext. 366).
*Ramnath D. Sudakar, Professor of Pharmacology, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh, Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444104, India. Tel. 58200 (ext. 73).
*T.B. Suryaprakasam, Consultant, Khammah AP, Nehru Nagar, Khammam A.P. 507002, India. Tel. 229827.
*V.S. Tamhane, General Manager (C), Baroda Dist. Co-op. Milk Producers' Union Ltd. Baroda Dairy, Makarpura Road, Baroda, India. Tel. +91-265-641066, fax +91-265-641206.
A.M. Thaker, Department of Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand 388001, India.
*Bharatkumar R. Thaker, Deputy Director of Animal Husbandry, Veterinary Polyclinic, Alembic Road, Vadodara 390007, India. Tel. 328372.
*Mohan M. Tilloo, Partner, Mycon Pharma, 647, Kasba Peth Manik Chowk, Pune 11, India.
*Sharad S. Tilloo, Partner, Mycon Pharma, 647, Kasba Peth Manik Chowk, Pune 11, India. Tel. 458227.
*Subhash S. Tilloo, Partner, Mycon Pharma, 647, Kasba Peth Manik Chowk, Pune 11, India.
*Ramesh Chandra Upadhyaya, Shalihotra, Alternat. Veterinary Medicine Research and Training Institute, Mandleshwar Dist. Khargone, M.P. 451221, India.
*A.S. Upadhye, J.S.A., Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agharkar Road, Pune, India.
*S. Vedavathy, Reader and Head, Department of Botany, Sri Venkateshwara Arts College, B.23 Vaikuntapuram, Thirupati, A.P., India. Tel. 29605.
*V. Velan, G.M., Indian Herbs, C-102, Adarsh Garden, 47th Cross, 8th floor, Jayanagar, Bangalore, India. Tel. +91-80-6635656, fax +91-80-6656652.
*D. Venkateshwarlu, Executive Feed and Fodder, Indo Swiss Project, V.B.R.I. Campus, Shantinagar, Hyderabad 500028, India. Tel. +91-40-229827 or 3320386, fax 3323025.
*Prabha Venkataramaiah, Lecturer, Botany, G.T.P. College, Nandurbar 425412, Maharashtra, India. Tel. 22293.
*Koneti Venkatramana, Assistant Director (Animal Husbandry), Livestock Assistants Training Centre, Reddipalli (PO), Anantapur (Dt.), Andhra Pradesh, India. Tel. 57242.
*M.P. Verma, I/C Professor of Pharmacology, Veterinary College (GAU), Anand, India. Tel. 21666 (ext. 276).
*Marathe Arati Vidhyadhar, Student, G.T.P. College, Nandurbar, Maharashtra, India.
A.P. Vyas, Consultant, Bhimaji Ka Mohalla, Hatai Tapi Bawri, Jodhpur 342001, Rajasthan, India.
*Jacob B. Wanyama, Veterinary Officer, Intermediate Technology Development Group, P.O. Box 39493, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. +254-2-442108, fax +254-2-445166.
*Fran White, Student, University of New Castle Upon Tyne, Department of Agriculture, King George VI Building, New Castle Upon Tyne, NE2 7RU, United Kingdom.
Tel. 44-191-222 6870, fax 44-222 7811, email F.N.White@ncl.ac.uk.
G. Wirtu, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
*Sri Dadi Wiryosumanto, Directorate General of Livestock Services, Jl. Harsono RM No.3, Raguwan, Jakarta Selatan 12550, Indonesia. Tel. +62-21-7815685, fax +62-21-7827774.
*Salome Yesudas, Training Associate, D.D.S - K.V.K., P.B. No. 214, Jaheevabad, A.P. 502220, India. Tel. +91-8451-82809.
*Fern D. Yocum, Livestock Technical Officer, Mennonite Central Committee, G.P.O. Box 785, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Tel. +880-2-9117065, fax +880-2-815625, email email@example.com.
*M.I. Zuberi, Professor of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh. Tel. +880-721-750370, fax +880-721-750064.
Atchiraju, Gummarapalam Village, Ramavaram Mandal, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
Ms. Vallala Bullamma, Thungamadugula village, Addateegala Mandal, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
Kotam Chinnaldora, Kumaravaram village, Gangavaram Mandal, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
Mhalu Kokre, Khanu village, Velhe Block, Pune district, Maharashtra.
Bhikaji Kulye, Tarwal village, Ratnagiri block and district, Maharashtra.
Rambhau Marne, Aandgaon village, Mulshi Block, Pune district, Maharashtra.
Kashinath Marure, Sonal village, Bidar district, Karnataka.
Golla Pochiah, Thimmapur village, Shivampet Mandal, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh.
Chinna Ramulu, Jagganathapuram village, Nakapalli Mandal, Vishakapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh.
Ms. Somallamma, Jagganathapuram village, Nakapalli Mandal, Vishakapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh.
- b.w. body weight
- BC before Christ
- ED50 median effective dose
- FMD foot-and-mouth disease
- EPG egg number per gram faeces
- EA electroacupuncture
- EVM ethnoveterinary medicine
- g gram
- GO government organisation
- i.m. intramuscularly
- ITK indigenous technical knowledge
- kg kilogram
- LD50 median lethal dose (the dose that will kill 50% of the tested group)
- NGO non-government organisation
- PRA participatory rural appraisal
- M molar (measure of strength of solution)
- mg milligram
- ml millilitre
- (g microgram
- sp., spp. species
- UK United Kingdom
- UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
- Rs. Rupees (Indian currency)
- WHO World Health Organization
Click to return to 'Contents'
VOLUME 1: SELECTED PAPERS: 9 FILES:
Summary of contents, Preface, Acknowledgements
Introduction & Part 1: Applied studies of ethnoveterinary systems
Part 2: Validation of Ethnoveterinary Medicine
Part 3: Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and plant medicines
Part 4: Application of ethnoveterinary medicine
Part 5: Education
Tables 1-4 from Paper 'Scope of homoeopathy in veterinary practice', Part 4
Table 'Ethnoveterinary Projects' from Annexes